Political and Administrative Theories
John Stuart Mill in his book “On Liberty” argues that civil liberty is not something that is widely spread out much in human history. He acknowledges that despotism is the government’s legitimate mode in dealing with barbarians towards creating prospects in the future life of the people. He continues to say that once mankind is capable of being controlled by his own improvement through persuasion or conviction, it therefore implies the passive possession of mankind in the modalities of governance.
The compulsive style of ruling is no longer a means of rule that may be accepted (John, 1863). Mill argues that an individual’s decision over his own mind and body implies personal sovereignty. It sounds sensible and convincing though there is no simplicity in the issue of liberty. Mill believes that, the only freedom that requires conviction is the one in which we are able to pursue our own good in a way that is of our own desire. This aspect will only be possible when we do not happen to impede or deprive the efforts of others in pursuing their own good.
He constantly indicates that there is no deal that is of great to worry or say about liberty prior to the final hurdle that one gets. In many areas and aspects of humanity, liberty is spelt as having various difficulties (John, 1863). In his book, Mill talks about the liberty of discussion and thought. He believes that it is important that every person can give whatever they belief on regardless of how it crushes the majority. Consequently, every person’s voice should be given the opportunity of evaluation since it reflects the conceptions held by an individual.
Thomas Huxley `Evolution and Ethics’. Thomas Huxley in his book of evolution and ethics uses the two approaches of serious misapplication and morally repugnant Darwinian Theory to the subject of ethics. He states that a society progresses best through those people who prove themselves ethically and fit physically. In his book, Huxley says that there is a war between the psyches of human within themselves. He further states that humans are alienated in the societies’ moral precepts and in cosmos. They are perceived as important in conflict with the existence of the natural conditions.
Huxley however saw the dictates of morality as the key in human future for his success and happiness (Thomas, 1958). He however states that natural selection needs not to be deemed as a mixture of blessing, but as a mixture that is damnable. Additionally, natural selection is not a natural evil. He gives the examples of floods, hurricanes and earthquakes killing people as natural evils. These are evils that are unequivocal, but distinct from a point that is capable of leading us into a condemnatory and a retributive mind frame. Elsewhere, he states that natural selection is neither culpably nor intentionally evil.
It is only people’s ways and action that are evil. The natural selection evils are quite sinister than those which are derived from competition in death or life for necessities that are scarce (Thomas, 1958). It is the perversity that is heightened of evil due to the good of natural selection as found in one organism when compared to the evil of another organism evil. He continues to say that the good of one organism in one respect is its own evil in the respect of another organism. Consequently, anything that has good also posses evil.
John Stuart Mill (1863) On Liberty. London, Longmans, Green Reader and Dyer
Thomas Haxley (1958) Evolution and Ethics. London, Routledge