Nick Names Formation in Lendang Nangka Sasak Menu-Mene Varity and Arabic Languages
NICK NAMES FORMATION IN LENDANG NANGKA SASAK MENU-MENE VARITY AND ARABIC LANGUAGES A Research Writting An NT Language and Culture Final Assignment Lecturer : Dr. Kamaludin Yusra By Samsul Bahri/12J012060/A ENGLISH EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM MATARAM UNIVERSITY 2013 Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratefull and appreciation to my honourable lecturer Dr. Kamaludin Yusra, who would like to wait patiently for months for a word from me, then respond sympatically and constsructively within days. This assigment is written to accomplish a final task for Nusa Tenggara Languages Culture and Contact.
I am interested to focus my study on Sasak varity nicknames formation as I found them important points to discuss to defining how nicknames in Sasak varity language are formed. So far I found it is hard to do this as the previous research for this merely. I tried hard to focus this research because lack of academic writting background knowledge and references. These are my become obstacles to do this research writting. But this first experience I hope will be my best teacher to do better in the future. I am afraid there are some mistakes in this simple research proposal, I do hope there will be some suggestions to make it better.
Samsul Bahri CONTENTS Acknoledgementi Contentsii A. Introduction1 B. Research Questions3 C. Review of Literarture3 D. Research Methodology10 * Population10 * Sample11 * Data Collection11 * Data Analysis11 E. Discussion 11 F. Conclussion55 References Nick Names Formation in Lendang Nangka Sasak Menu-mene Varity and Arabic Languages Abstract This research paper discussed about nicknames formation in LendangNangka Sasak meno-mene dialect and Arabic nicnames. Most of sasak names are influenced by Arabic names as Islam is predominantly religion for Lendang Nangka village inhabitats.
As names is identity of a person its has very strategic role for human being. Naming custom varies greatly from people to people. Terms relates personal names such as personal name, family names, given names and Nick name. The nicknames formation in some cases similar to Arabic language. In Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene language. The meaning of Nicknames also has it own place in the dialect. A nickname is usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place . Nicknames formations in the dialect through process of truncation (shortened), phonological process(replacing a stressed vowel and a onsonant), psychical characteristic and attributes. Nicknames also related to close friend and social solidarity. While in Arabic nicknames formation has its own way to form it. This research uses descriptive research methodology. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The goal of this research is to describe ?? the formation, structure and meaning of the names in Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene varity language and Arabic. The population of this research the inhabitants of Lendang Nangka village. This reserach studies about the personal names and nicknames. There are 6357 names.
The data are gained from primary and secondary sources. Keywords: Sasak varity, Arabic, Personal Names, Nicknames, formation, truncation, phonological, Physical Characteristic, Lendang Nangka, menu-mene dialect. A. Introduction A name is inseparable circumstance to human being, place or thing. A name is a word or term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. A personal name identifies a specific unique and identifiable individual person. Though Indonesia is home to many diverse ethnic groups and languages.
Those exaggerated the varies greatly between these groups in names. The dominant ethnic group is the Malay people (whose languages include Indonesian, Javanese). Generally, all Indonesians have one or more given names. Some ethnic groups also use a family name or clan name, other groups use a patronym. Some Indonesians have neither a family name nor a patronym. (Salahudin Ahmad,1999). Personal names are considered as important part for personal identity. Sasak people consider names has special meaning, and there is a special practise to do in naming new born baby as one of the life cycle in Sasak people.
As predominantly religion, islamic naming system influences most of Sasak names. Islam is closely relate to arabic naming system although it is not totally influenced the Sasak names. Islamic naming system are used commonly in Sasak muslim good followers. Lendang Nangka village inhabitants are muslim. The inhabitants of Lendang Nangka village are consider as moderate muslim. This makes sense that naming system is not totally following Islamic naming system although many of the people in the villages use Arabic names such as Muhammad, Ahmad, Abdurrahman, Abdullah, Wahid, Syafi’i, Siti Aisah, Siti Hadijah, Mariam, etc. nd some others Arabic root terms such as Nurul Hayati, Nurul Aini, Laitul Fitri which they considered as Islamic naming systems. On the other hand many personal names are influenced by non Arabic names, western, Hindus and Javanese, or by their own creation naming systems. And the last naming system is naming by local Sasak names (although there is no written rules about this but this is just based on the local story and information). Relate to the topic of this research a name in short form is called Nickname.
According to Free Online Dictionary(2009): nickname is a descriptive name added to or replacing the actual name of a person, place, or thing. Where as The Wordsworth Concise English Dictionary(1988) defines Nickname as a name given in contempt or sportive familiarity. A nickname is “a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place” (Oxford Dictionary Online, 2012), as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name”.
Nicknames may based on a person’s name or various attributes such as (in majority the example taken from American names) : Tittle (“Bones” for a forensic scientist,”Doc” for a doctor ,”Sparky” for an electrician, Geek for a computer technician, “Sarge” for a military Sergeant, Moneybags for a wealthy person, Sir or Ma’am for a person of a higher rank); Physical characteristics (Weight: “Fatso” or “Slim” for a person who is overweight or thin, respectively. Height: “Beanpole” for a person who is tall, “Shortie” or “small-fry” for a short person. Haircolour: “Red”, “Ginger”, “Ranga”, or “Bluey” for a person with red hair. Blondie” a girl with blonde hair. Baldness: “Chrome dome” for a person whose scalp reflects the light. Complexion: “Pinky” for a person with Rosacea, “Zit” or “pizza-face” for severe acne, various racial slurs for skin color. ; Personality (Talkative: “Motormouth”, “Chatterbox”, “Ratchet-Jaw”, “ChattyKathy” Cautious: “Nervous Nellie” Pessimistic: “Sad Sack” Negative: “Debbie Downer”, Glamorous: “Stunning Signe”, Boring: “Plain Jane”, Typical: “Average Joe”. This Research paper focuses on the analysis of nick names formation in Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene varity and Arabic languages.
This topic is based on the personal names of Sasak and their relationship to Arabic personal names. As we know naming system in Sasak names are moslty influnce by religious aspects. So far I found that it an interesting topic to disscuss about nick names formation as it is merely found the academic writting of how the Sasak nick name are formed. I prefer to specify the Sasak menu mene varity as it is my origin language and it is interesting to relate the naming system with Arabic as both of them uses mostly use Arabic personal names as the inhabitants considered Islam belivers.
B. Research Question * What are the naming systems in Sasak meno-mene varity and Arabic language? * What are the meaning of Lendang Nangka Sasak Meno-mene varity and Arabic personal names? * How are Arabic and Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene varity nicknames formed? * Does Arabic nicknames formations contribute to Lendang Nangka Sasak nicknames formations? C. Review of Literature According to Merriam-Webster (2012) name is Word or phrase that constitutes the distinctive designation of a person or thing . By a name we can identify each other.
In general term, a name is a label for a noun – a person, place or thing. Naming customs vary greatly from people to people. Some names carry information about our roots, such as family or clan names, which are generally inherited. Terms relates personal names such as personal name ,family names, given names and Nick name. In some cases they are very simple, such as those of many Indonesians names who use just a single name. On the other hand, names could also be very complex such traditional Chinese (Wikipedia, 2007).
A given name, in Western contexts often referred to as a first name, is a personal name that specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially in a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name or surname. Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not simply have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names. This system was in use throughout the Arab world. The given name is always followed by the father’s first name, then the father’s family surname. Example Name Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Filasteeni. Wikipedia, 2007). The study of personal names has attracted a number of scholars over the years. There are many views regarding the way in which personal names are bestowed. This section aims to provide a overview of what previous scholars have found as far as personal naming is concerned. Scholars such as Koopman (1986; 1989), Thipa (1983; 1987), Herbert (1990; 1995), Saarelma-Maunumaa (1996; 1999), Stayt (1931), Monnig (1967), Mbiti (1969), Moyo (1996), Kimeyi (1989), Dickens (1985) and Bosch and De Klerk (1995) have based their discussions on some of the personal naming patterns.
As far as African traditional culture is concerned, the selection of personal names is influenced by many factors. Most of these factors are diverse among cultures; nevertheless, there are some areas where they overlap. Jayaraman (2005: 176) provides the following explanation of the Hindu tradition of personal naming practices: a name not only reveals a person’s self-identity, but also his or her cultural, sectarian, varna, and caste identities. Further, it is believed to signal one’s spiritual worth not only in this world, but also in the next.
In everyday life, Hindus give great significance to a personal name. As this study on Tshiven? a names will reveal, the naming ceremony of a child is an important event. It is also traditionally one of the major life circle rituals for a Hindu. In Southern India, it is usually performed on the twelfth day of a child’s life. Customarily, some Hindus, who believe that even days are lucky for girls and uneven ones lucky for boys, hold that a boy should be named on the eleventh day and a girl on the twelfth.
When the ceremony is to occur, and mainly in the case of the first child, both the father’s and the mother’s relatives visit the house where the mother gave birth (usually her natal home). Here, the guests are entertained with traditional sweets specially prepared for the occasion. There are various considerations in the choice of a name. However, one essential element in the selection of a name in all parts of India is the birth star of a person. Most Hindus consult an astrologer to decide the appropriate name.
In the south, as in other parts of India, names may tell of the joy and expectations of parents of newborn children. For example, if a child is born to a couple many years after marriage, he may be endearingly named after some precious metal or gem, such as Ratnam (diamond), Sona (gold), Banghru (gold) or Muthu (pearl). Naming may also be related to other family experiences. For example, in Tamilnadu, if a family has experienced high child mortality, a surviving child may be named Pichi (gift of god) if male, or Pichiamma if female. Elements of idiosyncrasy and creativity are also apparent in Indian naming customs.
For example, an eminent professor of Telugu in Andhra Pradesh gave his daughter one of the longest names encountered: Sri Arunachala Kadambavana Sundari Prasunnamba Kanyaka (the blessed virgin who is beautiful and carries with her the radiance of sunshine, the fragrance of garden flowers, and the presence of God). Bean (1980:309), in his research on the bestowal of children’s names, found that it is often the duty of the parents, but may also be the duty of a senior kinsman or of a ritual specialist, and the participation of members of a larger community is also required ( e. . Ga names are bestowed by the senior patriarchal relatives). Bean’s (1980) view that the role of the ritual forms part of a child’s acceptance into his family group, is in a way similar to views given by other scholars such as Mbiti (1967), Monnig (1967), Koopman (1989) and Stayt (1931) on the role of the rituals that accompany name-giving ceremonies. Andrei A. Avram paper looks into the structural properties of Japanese and English truncated names. Name truncation is considered to be a word-formation process and is analyzed from the perspective of Prosodic Morphology.
Japanese and English truncated names are shown to be subject to strict prosodic requirements. Also discussed is the relation between name truncation and prosodic minimality in the two languages. Abigail study the ways in which truncation in Indonesian enriches our understanding of possible patterns of prosodic morphology and the nature of prosodic word requirements. The structure of the paper is first describe the patterns of truncation in Indonesian. He consider the question of word minimality and evidence for word minimality based on the stress facts of Indonesian.
He describe and consider the implications of two classes of subminimal words in Indonesian, including a class of words containing schwa and the short forms of terms of address and personal names. Both of these classes of words highlight the fact that word well-formedness and word minimality may be violable properties. He return to the question of truncation as prosodic morphology and briefly consider the Indonesian facts in light of recent theoretical claims about the nature of truncation. Langendonck (2008) made a nice survey to prove the universality of sources of surnames.
Accordingly, they are derived roughly from the same sources across linguistically and culturally unrelated languages. For instance, in the English speaking countries, most surnames of British origin fall into several types: occupations (eg Smith, Baker), personal characteristics (eg Short, Brown), geographical features (eg Hill, Lee) place names (eg Flint, Hamilton) patronymicsii(eg Richardson, Johnson) matronymics (eg Marriott from Mary) and paternal, from patronage (eg Hickman meaning Hick’s man). In French, people are named, following the same traditions: Legrand( the tall), le Carpentier (carpenter), le Parisien(from Paris).
The same sources of surnames are true of the Spanish-speaking countries: Delgado (thin), Molinero(miller), Aleman from (Germany). In Russian, one finds the same: Tolstoy (fat or stout), Portnov (tailor),Moskova (from Moscow). Romanians follow the same procedures in deriving their surnames: Barbu(bushy bearded), Fieraru(Smith), Munteanu(from the mountains) Moldoveanu(from Moldova). In Netherlands, the Dutch adopt the same path in forming theirs : De Groot(the great), Van Weert( of the city Weert) (ibid). During the pre-Islamic period and onward, Arabs used to follow certain traditions in choosing their personal names.
Roughly, the same traditions have been followed in modern Arabic dialects. In classical Arabiciv, some names were chosen by tribes for various reasons: (1) to threaten their enemies (eg Muqatil: fighter, Ghalib: winner, Asad: lion) (2) to express their optimism of their sons (eg Sa6yd: happy, Malik: owner, Najy: rescued) (3) to involve the sense of roughness of land or trees (eg :al a : thorny tree, hajar: stone) or (4) the newly born child is named depending on what his father comes across while the child’s mother is being in labour.
For instance, if the father meets a fox, the child will be named accordingly: Thalaba. The same holds true of dog: kalib, crow: Ghurab (Ibin Duraid, d. 321H ,nd:5f) (see also Altha’aliby, d. 430 H, 2007: 406f) Ibin Qutaybah(d. 276 H, 1999:67) adds that some people’s names are taken from names of plants(eg alqamah: colocynth) others from people’s characteristics or attributes(eg al-kareem: generous, al-shuja6: brave). In the Arabian Peninsula, females were named as males. This is attributed to the fact that the tribal societies at that time need e seen greater in number by others so that they would think a lot before invading each other. After the rise of Islam, the tradition of naming persons by the use of plants’ or animals’ names went on; and other factors for naming had become involved. For instance, beautiful names were chosen (al-Rabii: Spring) and got widely spread due to the Prophet’s position against the choice of ugly names. He (P. B. W. H) recommended that parents should select beautiful names that bring happiness and satisfaction to newly born children.
In surveying the traditions that Arabs followed in naming persons during the pre- and post-Islamic period, one finds that the same traditions have been roughly adopted by modern Arabic native speakers (Murad, 1984:36, 46). Al-Samaray (1961:4) adheres to a rather distinct view in that classical Arabic is no longer the variety spoken all over the Arab homeland i. e. different Arabic colloquial dialects are in use. This has had its impact on the way the PNs are used or chosen in every Arabic speaking country (see 2. 2. 1 below). However, Al-Samaray (p. ) does not state that the traditional ways of naming became totally absent(see 2. 2. 2 below). Ulaiq (2001:12ff) further indicates that PNs in SA and modern Arabic dialects are attributed to: 1. Natural phenomena (eg Qamar; the moon, kawkab: planet, Hilal; Crescent) 2. The sequential order of the newborn child which has sometimes a part to play in naming him or her(eg Faryd; the unique, Walyd; the alone, Rabia; the fourth). 3. Well-known or outstanding figures such as poets, heroes, wise men, presidents, artists or leaders (e. g Siina; Avicenna; Saladdiin, AbdulNasir). . Grandfathers’ or grandmothers’ names to glorify them specially the eldest son. 5. Harmony of the names so as to be of the same musical tone of the family members (eg Ranny, Rajjy, Wally, Haddy). 6. Particular occasions or events(eg Ramadhan: the fasting month, Najjah; success, Zilzal: earthquake) 7. The fear of envy in that ugly names are attributed to infants (as some people believe) to keep them away from being envied. Nevertheless, this tradition has become of a very minor role to play due to the spread of education and knowledge in the Arab homeland.
Sasak is a Western Malayo-Polynesian language spoken on the island of Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat province in eastern Indonesia (Austin, 2000, 2001). It is closely related to Samawa (spoken on the western half of Sumbawa Island to the east of Lombok) and Balinese, and sub-groups with them as a member of the Western-Malayo-Polynesian branch of Austronesian . Relate to this research, the study of Sasak language has been done by many researchers, but in the other hand the study about Sasak nicknames is very hard to find.
Acoodring to Austin (2000, 2001) Sasak language shows a wide range of local dialect variation in lexicon and syntax, which is the topic of ongoing investigation. There is also sociolectal variation with high, middle and low speech styles (Nothofer, 2000). Data for this paper is drawn from the Central and Southern varieties identified by their speakers as Meno-Mene, Meriaq-Meriku and Menu-Meni Sasak. As predominantly Islam believer Sasak and Arab people they mostly based their naming system on Islamic principles.
The fact that this is the right of the father is shown by the principle that the child is ascribed and attributed to the father, as Allaah says, “Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just in the Sight of Allaah”. It is also allowed for the parents to allow others to name the child, since our Prophet (SAW) used to name some of the children of his Companions. The name should carry a good and praiseworthy meaning as the Messenger (SAW) said, “On the Day of Resurrection, you will be called by your names and your fathers names, so make your names good. (Abu Dawood) It is recommended to call oneself a servant of Allaah (Abdullaah) or the servant of any of the names of Allaah. Then it is recommended to name a child after a prophet, due to the hadeeth, “call yourselves by the names of the Prophets” (Abu Dawood) and the hadeeth, “a son was born to me this night and I called him after my forefather Ibraaheem” (Muslim) Then it is recommended to name the child after any pious person in the hope that it will become like him/her. Then it is recommended to name by any name which has good meaning.
It is forbidden to name a child with a name that denote servitude to other than Allaah, for example Abd an-Nabi, Abd ar-Rasool etc, just as it is forbidden to name them with names that are particular to the Unbelievers like George, Michael, Susan etc. The names of tyrants and evil personalities should be avoided such as Fir’awn, Qaroon, Abu Lahab etc.. Likewise it is disliked to name with the names of the Surahs of the Qur’aan like ‘Taa Haa’ or ‘Yaa Seen’ as is reported from Imaam Maalik and others. There is no authentic hadeeth which ascribes the above two as being names of the Prophet (SAW).
As the influencing of globalization era, naming sytem also influences Lendang Nangka Sasak naming system. It is very common to find personal naming influnced by western names such, Heri from Harry, Linda, Tina, Sandi etc. More examples of differents names are presented in appendixes and in next discussion. D. Research Methodology This research uses descriptive research methodology. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The goal of this research is to describe ?? the formation, structure and meaning of the names in Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene varity language and Arabic.
A similar view is expressed by Djaya Sudarma (2006:16). He said that this method is a descriptive overview of the characteristics of the data accurately in accordance with the nature of the data itself. The statement was supported by Sudaryanto Djayasudarma (1993:62) who argued that the descriptive method focused on giving a full overview on the actual state of the object under investigation. This study also used qualitative approach. this study is also related to research data that is not in the form of numbers, but in the form of words or phrases (Sudaryanto, 1993:62).
Sudaryanto opinion is supported by Arikunto (1998:193) who states that qualitative research is a desecriptive research because this study attempted to describe the data with the words or phrases that are separated by categories to obtain conclusions. Based on the explanation above, the writer can say that the research is descriptive qualitative research means is intended to provide a clear picture of the process of the formation, structure and phrase user names Lendang Nangka Sasak menu- mene varity * Population The population of this research is the inhabitants of Lendang Nangka village.
Relates to the topic of this research the total names of the subject are 6357 names of Lendang Nangka inhabitants personal names. * Sample From total 6357 names there one hundreds personal names are taken as sample. Those samples are catagorized as first 100 hundred the most popular names in Lendang Nangka village * Data Collection There are two sources of data collection : Primary and secondary data. The primary data are obtained directly from local people of Lendang Nangka village by questioning to the paticipants and observation. Secondary Data source are taken from monography of local village office.
Data source are in the form list of names local inhabitants. The number of the is 6357 personal names in the village (appendix… ). Those total names will be group into the group of similarities of each names(appendix … ). * Data Analisys. After all data are obtained the next step is to analize the data. Analysis is an effort to study and process the data to find out the conclussion. Each group will be analized based on their formation and the form of the names, and their originals. All data are put into some cataogries: 1. Their similarities pharase and sylabble 2. Base 3.
Ending word or prosodic 4. Meaning After all data are determined to their group. The next step is to analyse the process of each names become nicknames based on phenomena and observation. After all data collected , the next process is sorting names into their catagory using spread sheet Ms-Office Excell 2007 sorting system. For further analysis will be discussed in disscussion part . E. Disscussion The topic of this discussion will focus on the study of Lendang Nangka Sasak menu-mene varity names while on the other hand Arabic names disscus in not too deep discussion and analyis.
The discussion will also be based on some theories and names. 1. Names Generally a name is a label for a noun – a person, place or thing. More specifically a name is a label for a specific person, place or thing. These are sometimes called proper names. A name is a word or term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. According to Merriam-Webster(2012) name is Word or phrase that constitutes the distinctive designation of a person or thing . By a name we can identify each other.
In general term, a name is a label for a noun – a person, place or thing. : look at the following examples: | Person| * Heri * Megawati Sukarno Putri * Harun Al-Rasyid * Lalu Serinata * TGH. Muhammad Zainul Majdi| Name —– Noun| Thing| * Meja (Table) * Harimau (Tiger) * Lendang Nangka | | Place| * Hotel * Lombok Sumbawa * Lendang Nangka * Bima| 2. Personal names Relate to personal names, naming customs vary greatly from people to people. Some names carry information about our roots, such as family or clan names, which are generally inherited.
Terms relates personal names such as personal name , family names, given names and Nick name. In some cases they are very simple, such as those of many Indonesians names who use just a single name. On the other hand, names could also be very complex such traditional Chinese(Wikipedia, 2007). A given name, in Western contexts often referred to as a first name, is a personal name that specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially in a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name or surname.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not simply have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names. This system was in use throughout the Arab world. The given name is always followed by the father’s first name, then the father’s family surname. Example Name Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Filasteeni. Sasak people naming system is considered as simple naming system such Muhammmad Amin, Aminah, Hadijah, Amir Mas’ud, Samsul Bahri. The names mostly influences by Arabic names or words as most Sasak people are moslem.
While in Greek using more complete name as follows: personal name(s) + patronymic + family name e. g. a son whose father’s name was Georgios might be called Spyros Georgiou Kyprianos same as in Bulgarian names: personal name(s) + patronymic + family. e. g. Emil Petrov Christov (Wikipedia, 2007). A modern Chinese usually has (1) a surname (“family name”) or xing and (2) a given name (“first name” or “Christian name”), or ming (or mingzi ), always in that order. Thus Deng Xiaoping is Mr. Deng with the personal name Xiaoping the same way John Jones is Mr.
Jones with the personal name John. (Lelia, 1961). 3. Sasak language, personal names and origins a. Sasak language. The Sasak language is spoken on the island of Lombok (immediately east of Bali) by around 2. 5 million speakers (roughly 85% of the population of Lombok, which was recorded as 2,950,105 in 2005. It shows great internal variation, both geographical and social, with a complex linguistic ecology (Austin 2003) Sasak has traditionally been classified into five dialects: meno mene, ngeno-ngene, meriyaq-meriku, kuto-kute, and nggeto-nggete.
However, this classification does not seem to accommodate the reality of the actual variation existing in Sasak, because there are also other dialects such as menu-meni and menung-mening. For instance, menu-meni speakers do not always agree to be in the category of meno-mene speakers, although the reason for this is hard to tell (Mahyuni, 2007). As Mahyuni stated that menu-meni speakers do not always agree to be in the category of ngeno-ngene speakers. I preassumed, The sasak language which the people in Lendang Nangka (Where I live) east Lombok may categorized as meno-meni speakers even though located in the region of ngeno-ngene dialect.
Despite of category by A. Teeuw. In circumstance of geographic location, Lendang Nangka is surrounded by ngeno-ngene dialect speakers such, Jurit village in the east, Danger village in the south, Sangiang in the west and Borok Lelet in the north. Based on historical information, the inhabitants’ anchestor of Lendang Nangka were from the area of district Kopang Central Lombok (where as it is considered as menu-mene dialect speakers). b. Sasak personal Names In fact, Sasak do not generally use the Western naming practice of a given first name and a family last name nor arabic system which is consist of full chain of names.
In general, the form Sasak personal names fall into the following categories: * A single name: Sahnep, Mahrap, Mahyan, Marep, Serinata, Sahnun, Sapnah, Riadah, Muhammad, Ahmad, Abdullah, Lasmi, Sintiawati, Kartika, Indra, Subawae, etc. * Two (or more) names without a family name: Muhammad Safi’i, Siti Aminah, Safaril Ahyak, Yusran Ahmadi, Samsul Hadi, Laelatul Fitri. * Names for documentary system (marital certificate, passport, birth certificate): This category is based on Indonesian formal rule. A name following by father’s name: Sahudin bin Muhammad (M), Fitriah binti Sahidun (F). Names based on the first child ( After a spouse has their first child bornt). Amaq/mamiq Sahudin (First child name is Sahudin, while Amaq means father so meaning The father of Sahudin). While the wife could be Inaq/Meme Sahudin (Inaq means mother so meaning the mother of Sahudin. In fact the of the father has his own personal name Abdurrahman or the mother’s personal name Aminah. * Noble personal name Lalu is added before a male personal name, such as: Lalu Suparlan, Lalu Serinate. Baiq is added before female personal name, such as: Baiq Hikmah, Baiq Mustiare. c. Origin of Sasak names.
There is not specific informations about the original Sasak Names in spite of the fact that some of Sasak names are not found in other language names (Sahnep, Mahrep, Segep, Sinarep, Senep, Sahne, Amsiah, Rumlah, Sene, Selihan, Mahnan, Serinate (? ). The following description of the origin of Sasak names which are based on the language, culture and religious influences: * Arabic word derived names Since Islam is the main religion for Sasak people , it is veryobviously to find Arabic first names as personal names in Sasak names such as Abdullah, Abdurrahman, Siti Aminah, Siti Hadijah. * Sanskrit derived names
As the influenced of former ruler of Balinese in Lombok we will find some similarities in Sasak and Balinese such as in language and culture. Sanskrit derived names-names that may sound Hindu-influenced such as Indra, Bayu, Surya, Wisnu, Rama, , Bima, Dewi, Sri, Laksmi, Saraswati, Sintawati, etc. * Popular and Honored person Names Sasak people also use personal names following popular names taken honored person such as names of former presidents (Sukarno, Suharto, Megawati, Habibi), celebrity names (Desi Ratnasari, Rano Karno, Herman Felani, Anjasmara), sport champions names (Alan Budi kusuma, Verawaty, Rudi Hartono). Etc. * Western names
Due to the influence of Western popular culture and celebrities, many non- Sasaksalso have shortened Western names like Sandy, Ricky, Alan, Meri (Marry), Linda, Amanda, Cindy,Heri (Harry), Meri (Marry), Sintia (Chintia) etc. The names can be found through Sasak family in suburb even in rural community. * Parents own Creation names. Some parents created their child names with their own idea and meaning. Such as persons who were born in certain times . Juliawati for a person who was born in July, Agustina in August, Oktaviana in October, Ramadani in Ramadhan month, Laelatul Fitri in the night before Iedl Fitri day, Purnawati in full moon night. . Lendang Nangka Sasak Meno-mene varity 100 Top names. So far there is no specific rules in Sasak naming sytem. Since most of Sasak people are muslim naming system is much closely related to Arabic names, although it is not totally follow the personal naming system for Arab people. Sasak personal names are similar to most Indonesian moslem names although some names appear as they are influences by western and Hindus names. Some other names are created by parents own creation which they based on other peoples names, time, place, nature, plants or thing they considered good names.
The top 100 hundred names of 6357 names mostly used in Lendang Nangka Sasak village as shown in the following table: Table. 1. Top 100 names in Lendang Nangka Sasak Meno-mene varity No. | NAMES| Total names| %| No. | NAMES| Total names| %| 1| SAMSUL (+ …. )| 37| 0. 58| 51| anti| 11| 0. 17| 2| Abdullah (+… )| 34| 0. 53| 52| DIAN| 11| 0. 17| 3| SUMIATI| 29| 0. 46| 53| HAERIAH| 11| 0. 17| 4| JUMAKYAH| 27| 0. 42| 54| HARNI| 11| 0. 17| 5| JUNAIDI| 25| 0. 39| 55| LINA| 11| 0. 17| 6| MULIANI| 23| 0. 36| 56| MARIANI| 11| 0. 17| 7| SAPRI| 22| 0. 35| 57| NURUL AENI| 11| 0. 17| 8| Agus+| 20| 0. 31| 58| RIPAAH| 11| 0. 7| 9| ahmad+| 20| 0. 31| 59| SAMSUDIN| 11| 0. 17| 10| ERNA( +)| 20| 0. 31| 60| SENIWATI| 11| 0. 17| 11| LIA| 20| 0. 31| 61| SUPRIADI| 11| 0. 17| 12| Aisah| 19| 0. 30| 62| ZAKIAH| 11| 0. 17| 13| RIZAL| 19| 0. 30| 63| Adi| 10| 0. 16| 14| SRI ASMAWATI+| 19| 0. 30| 64| ana| 10| 0. 16| 15| MULIADI| 18| 0. 28| 65| HAERUNI| 10| 0. 16| 16| NURHASANAH| 18| 0. 28| 66| HENDRI| 10| 0. 16| 17| HAMDIAH| 17| 0. 27| 67| HERI| 10| 0. 16| 18| IRWAN| 17| 0. 27| 68| HERIANTO| 10| 0. 16| 19| ROHANI| 17| 0. 27| 69| HERMAN| 10| 0. 16| 20| EKA| 16| 0. 25| 70| JULIANA| 10| 0. 16| 21| HAERANI| 16| 0. 25| 71| LIANA| 10| 0. 16| 2| NURHAYATI| 16| 0. 25| 72| MAHYUNI| 10| 0. 16| 23| ROZI| 16| 0. 25| 73| MAWARDI| 10| 0. 16| 24| Aminah| 15| 0. 24| 74| PAJRI| 10| 0. 16| 25| At| 15| 0. 24| 75| PATIMAH| 10| 0. 16| 326| IDA| 15| 0. 24| 76| RONI| 10| 0. 16| 27| MAHNUN| 15| 0. 24| 77| ROSIDI| 10| 0. 16| 28| NURUL +| 15| 0. 24| 78| SALMIAH| 10| 0. 16| 29| SAPIAH| 15| 0. 24| 79| SUHAILI| 10| 0. 16| 30| SURIANI| 15| 0. 24| 80| YANTI| 10| 0. 16| 31| Ani| 14| 0. 22| 81| YULIANI| 10| 0. 16| 32| NUR| 14| 0. 22| 82| ZAKRAH| 10| 0. 16| 33| NURAENI| 14| 0. 22| 83| Ahyar | 9| 0. 14| 34| YULIANA| 14| 0. 22| 84| andri+| 9| 0. 14| 35| Andi| 13| 0. 0| 85| ari| 9| 0. 14| 36| JUMARTI| 13| 0. 20| 86| DEDI| 9| 0. 14| 37| RINA| 13| 0. 20| 87| IWAN| 9| 0. 14| 38| Anah| 12| 0. 19| 88| MAHINUN| 9| 0. 14| 39| DEWI| 12| 0. 19| 89| NURUL| 9| 0. 14| 40| DIANA| 12| 0. 19| 90| PENDI| 9| 0. 14| 41| EDI| 12| 0. 19| 91| RIANAH| 9| 0. 14| 42| ELI| 12| 0. 19| 92| RIKA| 9| 0. 14| 43| HAMDI| 12| 0. 19| 93| SAHNUN| 9| 0. 14| 44| JOHAERIAH| 12| 0. 19| 94| SITI+| 9| 0. 14| 45| LINDA| 12| 0. 19| 95| SUMARNI| 9| 0. 14| 46| MARNI| 12| 0. 19| 96| SUPARDI| 9| 0. 14| 47| MULIANA| 12| 0. 19| 97| US| 9| 0. 14| 48| PADLI| 12| 0. 19| 98| anto| 8| 0. 13| 49| RENI| 12| 0. 19| 99| AYU| 8| 0. 3| 50| SAPRUDIN| 12| 0. 19| 100| HALIMAH| 8| 0. 13| | | | | | OTHERS| | 79. 05| The following table data is to describe the use of Arabic names Abdullah which is popular as Arabic name, the total number of inhabitants using Abdullah first names is 36 people: e. Other popular form of Lendang Nangka Sasak Meno-mene varity. From the analysis of the data it is found that many of Sasak personal names characteristic has similar final sylables such as ,-udin, -ni, -di, -man, -ti, -ah, -na, -wan. The following are data show names with the characteristic above: * Names with final sylable u–din Names with final sylable di * Names with final sylable –man * Names with end sylable –na * Names with end sylable –run * Names with end sylable – wan * Names with end sylable -un * Names with end sylable –to and – no * Names with end sylable –ah By observing the data above mostly naming system in Sasak meno-mene are very simple and it is tend to have similar names by using similar final sylables. 4. Arabic names, meaning and origins Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not simply have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
This system was in use throughout the Arab world. The given name is always followed by the father’s first name, then the father’s family surname. Some surnames have a pre-fix of ibn- meaning son of (ould- in Mauritania) The surnames follow similar rules defining a relation to a clan, family, place etc. Some Arab countries have differences due to historic rule by the Ottoman Empire or due to being a different minority. For example : * Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Filasteeni Ism – Muhammad (Proper name). Muhammad: praised. Nasab – Saeed (Father’s name). Saeed: happy Nasab – Abd al-Aziz (Grandfather’s name).
Abd al-Aziz: Servant of the Magnificient. Nisbah – al-Filasteenee (The Palestinian). Filasteen: Palestine. Muhammad Saeed, son of Abdul-Aziz, the Palestinian This person would simply be referred to as “Muhammad” or by relating him to his first-born son, e. g. :”Abu Kareem” (father of Kareem). To signify respect or to specify which Muhammad one is speaking about, the name could be lengthened to the extent necessary or desired. During the pre-Islamic period and onward, Arabs used to follow certain traditions in choosing their personal names. Roughly, the same traditions have been followed in modern Arabic dialects.
In classical Arabiciv, some names were chosen by tribes for various reasons: (1) to threaten their enemies (eg Muqatil: fighter, Ghalib: winner, Asad: lion) (2) to express their optimism of their sons (eg Sa6yd: happy, Malik: owner, Najy: rescued) (3) to involve the sense of roughness of land or trees (eg ala : thorny tree,hajar: stone) or (4) the newly born child is named depending on what his father comes across while the child’s mother is being in labour. For instance, if the father meets a fox, the child will be named accordingly: Thalaba. The same holds true of dog: kalib, crow: Ghurab (Ibin Duraid, d. 21H ,nd:5f) Ibin Qutaybah(d. 276 H,1999:67) adds that some people’s names are taken from names of plants(eg alqamah: colocynth) others from people’s characteristics or attributes(eg al-kareem: generous, al-shuja: brave). In the Arabian Peninsula, females were named as males. This is attributed to the fact that the tribal societies at that time need be seen greater in number by others so that they would think a lot before invading each other. After the rise of Islam, the tradition of naming persons by the use of plants’ or animals’ names went on; and other factors for naming had become involved.
For instance, beautiful names were chosen (al-Rabii: Spring) and got widely spread due to the Prophet’s position against the choice of ugly names. He (P. B. W. H) recommended that parents should select beautiful names that bring happiness and satisfaction to newly born children. In surveying the traditions that Arabs followed in naming persons during the pre- and post-Islamic period, one finds that the same traditions have been roughly adopted by modern Arabic native speakers (Murad, 1984:36, 46). Al-Samaray (1961:4) adheres to a rather distinct view in that classical Arabic is no longer the variety spoken all over the Arab homeland i. . different Arabic colloquial dialects are in use. This has had its impact on the way the PNs are used or chosen in every Arabic speaking country (see 2. 2. 1 below). However, Al-Samaray (p. 5) does not state that the traditional ways of naming became totally absent(see 2. 2. 2 10 below). Ulaiq (2001:12ff) further indicates that personal names in SA and modern Arabic dialects are attributed to: 1. Natural phenomena (eg Qamar; the moon, kawkab: planet, Hilal; crescent) 2. The sequential order of the newborn child which has sometimes a part to play in naming him or her(eg Faryd; the unique, Wayd; the alone, Rabia; the fourth). . Well-known or outstanding figures such as poets, heroes, wise men, presidents, artists or leaders (eg Siina; Avicenna; Saladdiin, AbdulNasir). 4. Grandfathers’ or grandmothers’ names to glorify them specially the eldest son. 5. Harmony of the names so as to be of the same musical tone of the family members (eg Ranny, Rajjy, Wally, Haddy). 6. Particular occasions or events(eg Ramadhan: the fasting month, Najjah; success, Zilzal: earthquake) 7. The fear of envy in that ugly names are attributed to infants (as some people believe) to keep them away from being envied.
Nevertheless, this tradition has become of a very minor role to play due to the spread of education and knowledge in the Arab homeland. 5. Nicknames According to Oxford Dictionary A nickname is “a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name, or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name. A nickname is sometimes considered desirable, symbolising a form of acceptance, but can often be a form of ridicule. Nicknames in Sasak language relates to definition above is quiet similar in function and meaning.
The topic disscussion in this research relates to Nicknames formation in Lendang Nangka Sasak meno mene varity comparing to nick names formation in Arabic. This topic become the main discussion because most of Lendang Nangka inhabitants personal names are influenced by Arabic naming system. 5. 1. Nicknames formation. As the main focus on this response paper, nicknames formation is based on Lendang Nangka Sasak meno-mene varity. Nicknames formation in Sasak meno-mene varity in LendangNangka has some characteristics: 5. 2. Truncation the given names Truncation means to shorten by or as if by cutting off. The free dictionary online) 5. 2. 1. Truncate the base name by separate back part of base name as illustrated below: Base namenickname (truncated) – Gunilahilok – Haeriahiok – Sinarepayep – Sadahadok Nicknames (Truncated names) shows tendency to begin with a consonant and end with consonant, even their base starts with a consonant and end with a consonant. While the others following nicknames(truncated) names tend to begin with a consonant and ends with a consonant even the base names starts with a vowel and ends with a consonant: Base namenickname – Aminahminok – Andipendot – Aguscegos – Akramkeram – Amircemor – Amingemong Abdillahdilok – Ahmad gamek 5. 2. 2. Truncate the primary stressed syllable of the names as follows: Base namesNicknames (truncated names) – At’harhar – Rukiahkiah/kiok – Sakdahdah/dok – Samsulsul -SamsudinSam 5. 2. 3. Truncate the secondary stressed syllable of the names as in the following example: Base namesNicknames (truncated names) – Samsudinudin – Tarminimini – Hamdandan – Jumlahlah/lok 5. 2. 4. Truncate names on the segmental of onset consonants replace randomly: Base namesNicknames (truncated names) – SakdahCedok – MuhamadGamek – SirCing – HasimTacim – MahrepGayep 5. 2. 5. Phonological Process. Stressed vowels occasionally change /a:/ into /o/ as follows : Base namenickname -Abdillahdilok -Samsiahsiok -Aminahinok -Rukiahkiok * Changing stressed vowel /a:/ into // ? Base name Nicknames -SatriawanAwen -SuparmanMamen -JarkasiKejer -SunardiSuner -AhmadAmek -JumakyahJume’ * Changing stressed vowel /i/ into /o/ as follows: Base name Nicknames -Mulyandiendot – Mulianieno’ – Muliaticetot – Santisentot – Samsul Hadiedot * Consonants may also be subject to change. /s/ is replaced by /c/ in middle position: Base name nick name -NasirAcing -HasanAcan Muhasimacim -Muhsankucan -MuhsinKucin -LusianiUci -HasanahCanok -MahsunAcun * /r/ is replaced by /? / at the close position Base name Nicknames -Munirning -Tahira’ing -Zakiraking -JaharAhang -MunawarAweng * /r/ is replaced by /y/ in the mid position Base name Nicknames -Idrusyus -Zakrahayah/ayok -Mustarahgayek -Mahrupayup -Mahrapayap -Mehrameyam -Sahrumayum -Sahuriuyi * /k/ is replaced by /h/ at the close position Base name Nicknames -ZakrahAyok – Hasanahcanok – Riadahadok – Sakdahcedok – Ramdahmendok – Sakdiahdiok – Abdillahdilok – Darmilahilok Sapirahirok – Jumlahjlok * /b/ is replaced by /p/ at the close position Base namenickname -Zaenabjenap – Assegabsegep – Mustajabajap – Rajabajap – Habibabip * /z/ is replaced by /j/ at the onset position Base namenickname – ZaenabJenap – Zulkarnainkejung – Zaenuddinjen – Zarkasikejer – Zulkiplijul * /l/ is replaced by /ng/ at the close position Base name nickname -Samsulancung – Sulhiahcung – Mulianahmung – Yulianiyung * /f/ is replaced by /p/ at the random position Base name nickname – Gafarapar – Irfanipan – Sarifayip – Mussannifsanip – Halifalip 5. 2. 6.
Nicknames also formed by dropping a consonant in random position, as described below: Base name nickname -Ehsanesan -Irfanipan -Ilhamiham -Ahsipasip -Mahsanasan 5. 2. 7. Nicknames formation also made by giving attributes to specific person such as following: – Kaktuan is for a person who has done hajj for example: Base namenicknames -Hajjah Kurniawatikak tuan kur -Haji Abdillahkak tuan dilok -Hajjah Samsiahkak tuan iok * Tuaq(uncle) and inaqrari (aunt) is to address someone feel close related to the speaker even he is not a relative of the speaker, as following example: Base namenicknames Salehtuaq aleh -Zaenuddintuaq jen -Syamsiahinaq rari iok -Rumlahinaq rari melok * Semeton/meton/ton (brother/sister) usually refers to male is to address between friends at same age and to show friendliness, even though they are not relatives in between and usually meton or ton is stand alone without nicknames. * Arik/adik (younger brother/sister)usually refers to male is to address to younger person and to show friendliness, even though they are not relatives in between and usually arik or adik is stand alone without nicknames. Kakak/akakArik/adik (older brother/sister) usually refers to male/female is to address to younger person and to show friendliness, even though they are not relatives in between and usually kakakor kak is stand alone without nicknames. * Amaq keke /bapak keke(father) usually refers to male is to address to elder married person and to show friendliness, even though they are not relatives in between and often amaq keke or bapak keke is stand alone without nicknames to show closer feeling. Inaq keke (mother) usually refers to address to elder married person and to show friendliness, even though they are not relatives in between and usually arik or adik is stand alone without nicknames. without to show closer feeling. 5. 2. 8. Nicknames also formed by physical characteristic and personality such as: -“Dakoh” for a person who is overweight -“keyek” for a person who is thin,. -“ranjo or belo” for a person who is tall, -“cendek or dendek/dandak” for short person. -“Bijang”, “ambok” for a person with blonde hair and grey hair respectively. “butak” for a person with bald head. -“melong” is for big eyes person. -“bireng” for a person with dark skin, -“bodak” for a person with white skin. ; Personality; -“nyerenceng” is for talkative person, -“beleke”, is for a person who laugh a lot -“kembo’”is for easy crying person – “bingis” for high tempered person. 6. Nick Names in Arabic. According to Zawaedah : Studying nicknames relates to Arab world is important for national security because they are used as aliases. Instead of using one’s real name, one may use a nickname to hide their identity.
A term for such usage is “nom de guerre” (i. e. war name). Resistance fighters, terrorists, and guerilla fighters use pseudonyms to hide their identities and protect themselves and their families from harm. A nickname is a name that identifies a person, place, or event that is different from the formal given name of the referent. Nicknames are often not legally registered in one’s official documents. Examples: Muammar Qathafi: Al? Akh al? Aqid ‘Brother Colonel’ Amin al? qawmiyyah al? Arabiyyah: ‘Keeper of Arab Nationalism’ Sahib al? Kitab al? Akhdar : ‘Owner of the Green Book’
Zuwaedah stated that Studying nicknames is important for national security because they are used as aliases. Instead of using one’s real name, one may use a nickname to hide their identity. A term for such usage is “nom de guerre” (i. e. war name). Resistance fighters, terrorists, and guerilla fighters use pseudonyms to hide their identities and protect themselves and their families from harm. Understanding the pseudonyms used by radical groups sheds light on their future intentions, perceptions, motivations, and connection to the cause. (Guidere, 2006).
Abu Hamza al-Muhajir (Abu Ayyub Al-Misri) : chief of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. Hamza Ibn Abd Al? Muttalib: Prophet Mohammad’s uncle. One of the bravest protectors of Islam. Muhajir: he immigrated to Iraq to fight. Or it could refer to “hijra”of companions of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina. In Arab world nicknames are used for : * Friendly daily conversations (face to face, on the phone, letters, e- mails, etc). Used for endearment or respect. * Monarchs may be known by other nicknames. * ‘Nabaz’ nicknames used to insult others (ex. Enemies), or used in the formation of swear words. Concealing identity: * Computer users: Chartrooms, e? mails, blogs, used as“usernames”. * Literary pen names –publishing authors. * Stage names (ism shuhra)? actors, singers, dancers, etc. * Criminals, terrorists, etc (takhallus) –especially the leaders have pseudonyms. 7. Types of Arabic nicknames 1. Asma’ Dal’ Hypocoristics 2. Kunya Abu X 3. Nasab Ibn X patronymics 4. Laqab description 5. Nisba origin of person 6. Nabaz insulting names 1. Asma’ Dal Hypocoristics Arabic hypocoristic formation is very generative. Generation is largely based on the root of the name (Zawaydeh and Davis, 1999). Khalid” has the following Jordanian and Egyptian nicknames: * Khalluuude * Khalkuleeh * Khaluudi * Khalluuude * Khukhu * Khalkhul * Dido * Khokha When a full name has an affixal consonant, be it a prefix, suffix, or infix, the affixal consonant does not appear in the hypocoristic. Hypocoristic contains only root consonants, regardless of what other consonants may be in the name. * MuhammadHammud * AhmadHammud * HamidHammud 2. Kunya In the Arab tradition, after a person gets married and has a child, s/he is called by the name of his eldest son (or daughter). Abu Muhammad ‘father of Muhammad’ * Um Muhammad ‘mother of Muhammad’ Highly used in the Arab World, and Muslims in general (ex: Afghanistan, Pakistan). Some Kunyas are metaphorical. The second word uses a positive or negative attribute. * Abu Al? Khayr‘father of goodness’ * Abu Dhubab‘father of flies’ Not every Abu X is just a nickname. It could be also a surname. Ex. Palestinian surnames: * Abu Hadeeda‘father of iron’ * Abu Minshaar‘father of a saw’ * Abu Sham’a‘father of a candle’ Used daily as an honorific to show respect to elders. Used by young men to address each other, for fun.
Even one who is not married, or doesn’t have a son may be called Abu X. As a “nom de guerre”. For example, “Abu” nicknames were popular among PLO leaders. * YasirArafat Abu Ammar * MahmoudAbbasAbu Mazen A terrorist may be known by a Kunya name. in India, the nickname “Abu Al? Qama”was used by a member of the terrorist group Lashkar? e? Taiba in the Mumbai terror attacks 3. Nasab Nasab is a patronymic or a metronymic name. The word “Ibn” or “bint” (i. e. son/ daughter of) followed by the father’s name. Was used more frequently as an alias in historic times.
The person was known as “son of X” instead of his first name. A chain of names reflects one’s genealogical ancestors. Example: * Ibn Khaldoun —- : Abd ar? Rahmanibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibnal? Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Jabir ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Abd ar? Rahman ibn Khaldun. Nasab .. current usage It is a standard way of reporting names in Saudi Arabia, and the Arabian Gulf. The head of the House of Saud:Muhammad bin Saud bin Muhammad bin Muqrinbin Murkhanbin Ibrahim bin Musa bin Rabi’abin Mani’bin Rabi’aal? MuraydiAl? Dur’aal? banafiAl?
Adnani Used online as alias names. Next word could be a colloquial or MSA adjective, a noun, a person’s name, or a place name. * Ibn Falastine‘son of Palestine’ * Ibn Hajar‘son of a stone’ 4. Laqab This is a description of the person, that could be considered a title of nobility. It is often a two-word phrase, which often indicates the person’s occupation, importance, or appearance. Originally, it was used as a nickname, and later adopted to be a title given to important people. * Sayfal? Din ‘The sword of the religion’ * Nasiral? Dawla‘the helper of the dynasty’ * Al? Jahiz‘the goggle? eyed’
A physical or personal quality. The phrase could be metaphorical. These could also be used as surnames. Al? Tawil‘the tall one’(could be a surname) Al? Andalibal? Asmar‘the dark nightingale’(Singer Abd Al? HalimHafiz) * Expressing adoration or reliance on God, or lineage to the Prophet. Some use compound structures with words such as “Allah”, “Abd”, “al-Din”, “al-Islam”, “al-Dawlah”, or words used in titles: * Al? Ra’is Al? Mu’min‘the faithful president’Anwar Al? Sadat * Amir Al? Mu’minin‘prince of the believers’HusniMubarak * Sayfal? Islam‘sword of Islam’Osama Bin Laden 5. Nisba
An adjective derived from the place of origin, birth, residence, or occupation. It could be also a clan, tribe, or family. Formed by adding –iyy/-iy at the end of the word. Usually preceded by al- definite article. This form is also used for surnames. * Abu Ayyubal? Misri (from Egypt) * Salahal? Din Al? Ayyoubi (founder of Ayyoubi dynasty – conquered crusaders) * Al? Ansari: fighters born in Iraq (Ansaral? Sunna group) * This type of structure is used frequently to coin new surname aliases. 6. Nabaz Nabaz could be metaphors that are used to describe somebody that is disliked or considered to be an enemy. Jihadi style writings use such metaphors abundantly. Comparing the process of nicknames formation in Sasak meno-mene varity and Arabic, both process in nicknames formation in general it is quite different. The process of formation nicknames basis in Arabic is basis those six basis. This basis is not common in Sasak meno-mene varity. F. Conclussion From the discussion we can conclude as follows: * Personal names in Lendang Sasak meno-mene varity mostly influenced by Arabic word and names. * Arabic names and Sasak names has similarities relates to Islamic way system of naming based on the hadist. There is no special rules in Sasak meno-mene varity in forming nick names compare to Arabic nicknames which on those 6 basis. * Most of Sasak nicknames formation are not influenced by Arabic nicknames formation. Sasak Personal names * Muhammad (personal names) become Amek (Nickname) While in Arabic names: * Muhammad (personal names) becaome Hammuud (Nickname). * The similarity in nicknames formation is in the Arab tradition, after a person gets married and has a child, s/he is called by the name of his eldest son (or daughter). * Abu Muhammad ‘father of Muhammad’ Um Muhammad ‘mother of Muhammad’ While in Sasak tradition after a person get married he / she is called by his ledest son (or daughter) * Amaq Udin “father of Udin” * Inaq Udin “ mother of Udin” * Mamiq Bambang “ father of Bambang” * Meme Santi “ mother of Santi” * Based on my onservation and analysis I found that the nicknames formation in Lendang Nangka nicknames varity are based on Truncation of personal names, phonological changing process, physical characteristic, attributions in term of social solidarity, friendliness and intimate. Biblography
Ibin Duraid(d. 321H,n. d)Al-Ishtiqaq(Derivation). Revised by AbdulSalam Harron. Cairo: Al-Khanachy Publishing House. Ibin Qutaybah (d. 267H. 1999) Adeb Al-Katib( The Writer’s Literature). Beirut: Al-Resalah Publishers. Jaszezolt, K. M. (2002) Semantics and Pragmatics: Meaning in Language and Discourse. London: Longman. John and Levitt, J. (1975) “People Have Names” in Wallace, A. & Stageberg, N. (eds. ) Introductory Readings on Language. New York: Rinehart and Winston. pp146-154. Dictionary of Islamic Terms. Damascus: Dar Al-Yamamah. Langendock,V. 2008) Theory and Typology of Proper Names. http //www. degruyter. de/cont/. Retrived on 17th of January 2008. Murad, A. K. ( 1984) Asma? Al-Nass: Ma anyha wa ASbab Al-Tasmiah Biha( People’s Names: Their Meanings and Reasons of Naming by them). Vol. I. Baghdad: Dar Al-Huriah for Printing. Nina(2008) A Survey of the History of English Place Names. http //www. sca. org. Retrieved on 19th of February 2008. Pollock,J. L. (1982) Language and Thought. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Al-Samaray, I. (1961)”Al-alam”(Proper Names) in Journal of Faculty of Arts Vol. III.
Baghdad University. pp3 -18. AlTha aliby,A. A. (d. 430H. 2007)Fiqih Al-lUghah wa Sirru Al-rabiah(Language Philology and the Secret of Arabic). Beirut: DarAl-Ma’rifah. Ulaiq,B. M. (2001)Al-Wafy fi Al-asma? Al-arabiah wa Ma6anyha( The Complete Text in Arabic Personal Names and their Meanings). Beirut: Dar Al-amra?. Ullmann,S. (1962)Semantics: An Introduction to the Science of Meaning. Oxford. Basil Blackwell. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nickname. Accesed on :11/1/2012 7:25:30 PM http://oxforddictionaries. com/definition/english/nickname. 2012 Oxford University Press.