Ncfe Swis Assignment 1
SUPPORT WORK IN SCHOOLS Unit 01 Child and Young Person Development As part of my preparation to complete Unit 1 Child and Young Person Development, I have attended taught sessions, undertaken research using books and the internet, taken part in group exercises and discussions and considered case studies. I have also completed a worksheet and received useful feedback from my tutor. All this has given me a better understanding of the theories behind child and young person development and the stages of development.
This information has been extremely useful, giving me the underpinning knowledge needed to carry out my role of supporting teaching in the classroom. It has also improved my self-confidence especially in the classroom. In this assignment, I will discuss the expected pattern of development from 0-19 years, including examples of how development can be promoted in children and young people and how different aspects of development are interrelated and can affect one another.
I will look at factors which can influence the child or young person’s development and discuss the potential effects of different types of transitions on children and young people’s development and ways in which the individual can be supported at such times. I will also briefly examine the psychological theories put forward by some influential researchers and illustrate the development of the National Curriculum. I will discuss observations and assessments and their importance in education.
I will consider the role of communication for those who are involved in supporting teaching and learning. I will also look at the importance of the ‘holistic’ approach when engaging with pupils and their rights to be treated fairly and as individuals. 1. 1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s Development from birth to 19 years to include: a) Physical development b) Communication and intellectual development c) Social, emotional and behavioural development
There is an expected pattern or sequence of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years. This pattern or sequence can help be used to measure a child’s development and aid in preparing materials in the classroom to suit the individual’s needs. However, every child is unique and will not develop at the same rate in all the areas of development at the same time. There are some important factors that need to be considered when providing learning opportunities; these are the age range of the individuals and the five aspects of child development.
The age ranges are 0-3 months, 3-9 months, 9-18 months, and 18months – 2 years, 2-3 years, 3-5 years, 5-7 years, 7-12 years, 12-16 years and 16 –19 years. The five aspects of child development are Social, Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Communication and Language Development. It is however important to note that child and young person development is holistic with each area being interconnected. Social development involves developing social skills as part of the socialisation process. This process determines how children relate socially and emotionally to others.
It’s as part of social development that children will learn behaviour patterns, self-control, independence, awareness of themselves in relation to others and develop an understanding of the needs and rights of others and moral concepts. In social development children age 3-5 will play with each other but by the time they reach the age range of 7-12 years they now want to belong to a group. Both age ranges will use language effectively to communicate, with 7-12 year olds now able to communicate very effectively. They are also less concerned about adult approval and are more concerned about the approval of their peers.
Whereas the 3-5 year age group are still concerned with seeking adult approval. The 3-5 year olds group are gradually able to share group possessions at playgroup or nursery and 7-12 year olds are able to participate in games with rules and other cooperative activities. Social development is promoted by setting goal and boundaries to encourage socially acceptable behaviour appropriate to the children’s ages and development using praise and rewards as encouragement. It can also be promoted by using books, stories, puppets and play people to help children understand fairness, jealousy, conflict ituations or growing up. Children can also be encouraged to use their self-help skills allowing children the time to do things independently such as choosing play activities or helping to tidy up. Emotional development might be defined as the development of personality and temperament. It includes how a child thinks and feels about themselves, how they think others see them, how they relate and interact with others and to their environment and how they express their individual needs and desires. The 7-12 year old group have become less egocentric and understand the feelings, needs and rights of others.
By age 12-16 this has developed further with the individual being sensitive to their own feelings and to those of others with a growing understanding of the possible causes for why people feel and act as they do. The 7-12 year age group may be very competitive with rivalry leading to aggressive behaviour whilst the older age group will have more confidence in their skills and ideas and will be assertive rather than aggressive. Both will argue with others, with the 12-16 year age group having strong opinions which may lead to grudges.
The younger age group, although finding it more difficult to forgive and forget than they did at a younger age, tend not to hold grudges. Emotional development can be promoted by using praise and encouragement to help pupils to focus on what they good at and maximise their individual potential. By giving pupils the opportunity to make decisions and choices, making them feel positive and important and preparing them for decision making at a later stage. Being consistent about rules and discipline so pupils know what is expected of them will further help to promote emotional development.
Physical development is an important area of a child’s overall development, and many aspects take place automatically as they grow and mature. However, it is crucial that children and young people are given opportunities and support in this area of development. Physical development can be promoted by providing play opportunities. Children could be allowed to explore and experiment with their gross motor skills using play equipment or practising fine motor skills such as drawing or using play dough.
In physical development a 2-3 year old will use a potty whilst a 5-7 year old will be ‘dry’ apart from the occasional accident. The 2-3 year old group will be able to undress themselves but will need help with dressing. The 5-7 year olds will now dress themselves. Fine motor skills will be developing in 2-3 year age group, they will be capable of feeding themselves and turning pages in a book but by 5-7 years this is much improved with the child now having the fine motor skills in order to be able to use a pencil, to put together a jigsaw and write their name.
This type of development can be promoted by allowing children to be as independent as possible and by using everyday routines to develop fine motor skills such as doing fastenings themselves, setting the table or using a knife and fork. Intellectual development involves the process of gaining, storing, recalling and using information. This development includes interrelate components of perception, thinking, language, problem solving, concepts, memory, concentration and creativity. Children will be constantly gathering new information and formulating new ideas about themselves and the world around them.
In intellectual development for example the 2-3 year old age group is still egocentric but the 5-7 year old begins to see other people’s points of view. Both will enjoy imaginative play. The older age group will have developed a longer attention p listening to longer stories and recalling details. The younger group will concentrate on intricate tasks but for a short length of time. Intellectual development can be promoted by providing access to materials to increase children’s curiosity such as books, games, toys and play equipment.
Participating in the children’s activities to extend their learning and development will also promote development in this area, by asking questions, providing answers and demonstrating how things go to together when necessary. Encouraging children to use their senses to experiment with different materials and explore their environment for example going on outings to the park, playing with sand and water will promote intellectual development. Communication and language development involves children learning home or community language, as well as modes of language- non-verbal communication, listening, speaking, thinking, reading and writing.
Language is a key factor in all aspects of children’s development as it gives them access to all aspects of human experience such as communicating with others, relating to others, formulating ideas or expressing feelings. In communication and language development a 2-3 year old will have a vocabulary of between 900 and 1500 words; this will have increased to 4000-10000 words by time they reach 7-12 years old. A 3-5 year old can listen to and follow simple instructions but by time they reach 7-12 years of age they can listen to and follow complex sets of instructions and will appreciate complex jokes and word play.
The 7-12 year old can give very detailed accounts of past events using varied expression and vocabulary, whilst the 3-5 year old is only capable of giving very simple accounts of past events. Communication and language development in children can be promoted by simply talking to children and showing them what you are talking about by using real objects, picture books or visual/audio aids, by sharing books, stories and rhymes with them and by using straightforward sentences with words appropriate to the children’s level of understanding and development.
The National Curriculum is extremely important for those who are involved in education as it is followed my many schools in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (academies and private schools do not have to follow it). It was introduced into school in1988 in order to ensure that each pupil was given the same standard of education. The two principal aims of the National Curriculum are: 1. The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and achieve 2.
The school curriculum should aim to promote pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. Furthermore, the national Curriculum has four purposes: 1. To establish an entitlement 2. To establish standards 3. To promote continuity and coherence 4. To promote public understanding. The Key stages are KS1 ages 5-7, KS2 ages 7-11, KS3 ages 11-14 and KS4 ages 14-16. There are five subjects which are required to be delivered from ages 5-16 years (KS 1- 4); these are English, Mathematics, P. E. Science and I. C. T.
The National Curriculum as evolved and has had several changes or alterations to various aspects of it. For example, The Education Act 2002 sets out the statutory, core and foundation subjects but the above aims and purposes have remained. However, a review of the National Curriculum in 2011 recommended changes which will come into effect in 2013. The review notice states that the National Curriculum will have the following aims 1. To embody rigour and high standards to create coherence in what is taught in schools 2. To ensure all children have the opportunity to acquire a core of essential knowledge in the key subject disciplines 3. eyond that core, to allow teachers the freedom to use their professional expertise to help children to realise their potential. Other areas to be considered include what subjects should be compulsory and what children should be taught in the main subjects and at what age. Communication skills are important for those who undertake the supporting teaching and learning role as it is vital in building up strong, positive relationships with colleagues, pupils and parents. Communication is a two way process with a sender (talker) and a receiver (listener). An important aspect of communication is active listening.
This can be achieved by giving your whole attention, listen, use eye contact, seek clarification if you do not understand something that has been said. Non-verbal communication can be a powerful indicator. For example, leaning forward slightly indicates interest whilst crossing your arms can be seen as a barrier or reluctance to listen. Smiling or nodding your head if appropriate are all signs that you are listening. Body stance and gestures and facial expressions are a good indicator of how the communication is progressing, for example a person may look worried or bored.
Another important part of communication is asking questions. There are four types of questions and asking the right question at the right time is important. Closed questions are those that can only be answered by the word yes or no. These can be useful for testing your or the other person’s understanding. Open questions are ones that cannot be answered by the word yes or no, for example ‘what do you think? ’ Reflective questions are ones that check understanding and allows someone to think about what they have just said. The fourth type of question is leading, this one that suggests what the answer might be.
Lessons should include a combination of both open and closed questions and learners should be encouraged to develop their own questioning skills with learners’ peer assessing each other using open and closed questions. 1. 2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another Although development is often divided into different ‘categories’, it is important to remember that these are all interconnected and link with one another. Examples of how different aspects of development can affect one another include: a.
A speech impediment, such as stuttering may lead to the individual being unable to communicate properly with other children. The child may get frustrated and refrain from any interaction with other children. They may have little or no self confidence. This can affect emotional and social development as well as communication development. They may be bullied or picked on because of it, which in turn can lead to isolation as they may feel unable to talk to other children for fear of being ridiculed. b. A child who has difficulty in sharing may have problems with social interaction and difficulties making friendships.
Other children may avoid them and this can affect the emotional and social development of the child who is unwilling to share as they may feel lonely and neglected. c. A child that is overweight or obese may have difficulties in participating in physical activities such as PE. This will affect not only their physical development but will also impact on the child’s social and emotional development as they may feel self-conscious and embarrassed and could be teased or bullied by their peers. 2. 1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development including a) Background ) Health c) Environment Pupils’ development is influenced by a wide range of factors including, their background, health and the environment in which they are growing up. These will all have an impact on the different areas of development and it is therefore important to have awareness of these factors. a. Background – Parents are extremely important in children’s lives especially in the early years. Most parents do a very good job of nurturing and providing for their children, providing a good diet, caring for them and offering opportunities for play and socialisation.
Offering support to their children by being involved, helping with homework and showing interest in what the child does. This care has a significant positive impact on children’s development especially in areas of social, intellectual and emotional development. Some parents are unable to provide such care and this can negatively affect children’s’ development. For example those with conditions such as depression, alcoholism or drug addiction may neglect their children and be unable to provide them with opportunities for play and socialisation.
Older siblings may have to take on a caring role for younger members of the family. These circumstances may cause the child anxiety, to become de-motivated and develop anti-social behaviour. b. Health- If pupils suffer from poor health or physical disability or impairment, this may restrict their development opportunities. For example, a child who has a medical condition or impairment may be less able to participate in some activities than other children. This may initially affect physical development, but may also restrict social activities for example on the playground.
This may then impact on emotional development. c. Environment – poverty and deprivation can have a significant effect of a child’s development. Families on low incomes may have poor diets which can affect children’s growth, behaviour and development. They may live in poorer quality housing, and not have sufficient income to heat them properly; again this can have an adverse affect on development with damp, crowed housing leading to poor health and lack of opportunity to play freely. Those children from low income families may lack play and leisure opportunities, or example the family may not have transport or the financial resources to access such opportunities as playing an instrument or going swimming. Conversely, those children from more affluent backgrounds are less likely to live in poor housing, are more likely to have a better diet and have greater access to play and leisure opportunities, thus all aspects of their development is impacted positively by their environment. 2. 2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development.
It is important to recognise and respond to concerns regarding a child’s development because if the problem is not dealt with as promptly as possible, it may have long term effects on all aspects of development. The sooner a problem is recognised and identified appropriate support can be given to solve the problem or lessen its effects on the child. Problems with language development would cause concern as language is at the heart of intellectual development. A child with poor speech development may find it difficult to read and write as they may not understand the link between sounds and letter shapes.
Without use of language, communication can be limited and the child may feel isolated and frustrated and consequently have behavioural issues. The child may be unwilling to speak to others and possibly find it hard to listen to instructions. The child would be affected socially as they may find it hard to make friends and interact with others. This could also affect the child’s self esteem; making them feel that their peers are more ‘advanced’ and they are stupid which might lead them to become de-motivated.
If a child was finding it difficult to interact with their peers, perhaps playing alone, this would be affecting the child’s social development perhaps causing them to lack confidence and find it difficult to socialise in future. Intellectual development could be affected as the child may not feel comfortable in working with their peers in class especially during group work and so not learn as effectively as possible. Consequently, accurate observations and assessments are essential to effective educational practice.
They allow objective assessments relating to each pupils behaviour patterns, learning styles, level of development, existing skills, curriculum strengths and weaknesses, current learning needs and learning achievements. Information from these observations and assessments can form the basis for the ongoing planning of learning objectives and setting learning goals and objectives for each individual pupil. They can help identify if pupils need extra support or if they have Special Educational Needs. When observing children all relevant aspects of development should be considered, social; physical; intellectual; communication and emotional.
Some important points to be considered when observing children are that confidentiality must be maintained at all times, the observer must be objective, reporting what they see or hear rather than subjective opinion. Equal opportunities should be considered for example a child with English as a second language may have difficulty expressing themselves in English but be competent in their own language. Focus should be on strengths rather than weaknesses, and a holistic approach should be taken looking at a particular area of development in relation to the child whole development.
The child’s feelings, needs and abilities should be considered and the observation discussed if appropriate to the child’s age and response given to their views. Distractions should be minimised and observations should be done without intruding or causing unnecessary stress. Teaching and learning has been developed using research carried out by many psychologists who have studied human development and this work has influenced teaching and learning methods. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory of learning suggests that children constructed or built up thoughts according to their experiences of the world around them.
He used the term ‘schema’ to refer to a child’s conclusions or thoughts. He saw learning as an ongoing process with children needing to adapt their original ideas if a new piece of information contradicted their conclusion. Piaget suggests that as children develop so does their thinking. He grouped children’s cognitive development into four stages. Sensori- motor (0-2 years) includes the development of object permanence, the beginning of the use of symbols e. g. language. Pre-operational (2-7 years) Child uses symbols in play and thought, this stage involves egocentrism, centration, animism and the inability to conserve.
Concrete operational (7-11 years) there is the ability to conserve, beginning of solving mental problems using practical supports such as counters The final stage is Formal Operational (11-15 years) young people can now think about situations they have not experienced and are able to juggle with ideas in their minds. Piaget’s work has lead to early years and schools settings providing more hands on relevant tasks for children and young people. With teachers starting by working out the needs of the children then planning activities accordingly.
B F Skinner (1904-90) suggested that most humans and animals learn through exploring the environment, and then drawing conclusions based on the consequences of their behaviour, people are therefore active in the learning process. Skinner divided the consequences of actions into three groups. Positive reinforcers are likely to make people repeat behaviour when they get something they desire. This is according to Skinner the most effective way of encouraging new learning. Negative reinforcers are likely to make people repeat behaviour as well but the behaviour is repeated to stop something happening.
A child going down a slide might learn to use their hands to slow them down if they were feeling unhappy about speed. Immediate positive reinforcers were considered more effective by Skinner. He also found that it wasn’t always clear what the primary reinforce was until after the experiment. For example a child may behave badly in order to gain attention and they will repeat the behaviour even if they are in ‘trouble’ as gaining the attention is the positive reinforcer. This ‘operant conditioning’ is frequently used by those working with children for example giving praise, reward stickers or certificates are positive reinforcers.
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) posited the ecological systems theory which has the individual at the centre of the model which has five systems. The microsystem which includes activities and interactions in the child’s immediate surroundings such as parents, school and friends. The mesosystem refers to the relationships between the entities involved in the child’s microsytems parent’s relationships with teachers etc. The exosystem are the social institutions which affect children indirectly such as parents work setting, mass media and extended family networks. The macrosystem or the broader cultural values, law, governmental resources.
The chronosytem refers to the changes which occur during a child’s life both personally and culturally (or the child’s transitions) In the ecological model each component interacts with other components, making a highly complex context the child grows up in. The child isn’t just a passive recipient of what goes on in his or her life. The child at the centre of the model and interacts directly with the people in the microsystems and the effects of the interaction go both ways. As people affect the child, so the child has an influence on them. 3. 1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people.
Transitions might simply be defined as any stage or experience in the life of a child or young person that can affect behaviour and/or development. They are generally linked to changes in a person’s appearance, activity status, roles and relationships as well as changes of setting. Common transitions which are foreseen that most children and young people will experience include progressing from one level of development to another for example puberty, entering adulthood; starting nursery or school; moving schools for example primary to secondary school; moving class, starting college or training; entering work or first sexual experiences. . 2 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience Some children and young people will experience personal transitions which are often unforeseen and happen to only some individuals. Personal transitions can include death or serious illness of a family member or friend; parental separation or divorce, moving house, going into hospital; living with disability, death of a pet, arrival of a new baby or step-siblings, changes in their main carer such as adoption, fostering, entering or leaving the care system and the process of asylum.
Family circumstance may lead to personal transitions for a child or young person some of these include, poverty; environment; employment status; child abuse and neglect; substance abuse and mental health needs. 3. 3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development Change is not always disruptive and distressing. When facing change it is natural to experience feeling of uncertainty and confusion, however, there can often be positive effects.
There may be for example increased levels of motivation, promoting development, educational progress, confidence, good health improved self-esteem and increased independence. Many children make successful transitions but for those who do not there can be problems for example decreased levels of motivation, developmental delay, educational delay, depression, ill health and poor self esteem. This can have negative implications for the future, affecting health, ability to achieve and enjoyment of childhood.
Change is more likely to cause emotional distress when it is completely unexpected and unanticipated for example bereavement. Signs of distress might include changes in the child or young person’s behaviour such as demonstrating uncharacteristic behaviour, becoming withdrawn or quiet, becoming angry, anxious, attention seeking or temporary regression in developmental and self – help skills or even bed wetting. They may demonstrate their concern through play or drawings or stories and some may want to talk.
High levels of distress can be further exacerbated when children are not kept informed, feel out of control and cannot access emotional support. To alleviate some this anxiety and stress, preparation is an essential part of managing transitions and most settings will have established procedures for preparing children for transfers and transitions using the ‘ten principles to support children’s transitions’ developed by the National Children’s Bureau for example a Transitions Policy stating the schools aims and procedures.
The teaching assistant should keep an eye out for changes in behaviour, encourage pupils to use any school based support for example talking to an adult that they trust, work to ensure positive relationships, be sensitive to pupils’ needs, and ensure that there is opportunity to discuss what is happening and to ask questions. If advance notice has been given that a child or group of children may be going through a period of change, this will give the opportunity to plan how support can be given.
For many children the move to nursery or primary school is a big step which can lead some children to experience anxiety and stress when they first attend the new setting. This anxiety and stress may be caused by separation from parent or carer, encountering unfamiliar children, length of time spent in the setting, differences in culture and language from the child’s previous experiences, unfamiliar routine and rules, worry about doing the wrong thing, taking part in unfamiliar activities e. . PE. The unfamiliar physical environment may seem scary. Children may have difficult in following adult direction and more structured activities or find it difficult to concentrate for longer periods than previously. Schools make these first days and weeks easier by arranging for children to have already met their new teacher, who may have visited them in their current setting or at home as well as welcoming them to their new setting.
Introductory visit may have been arranged for children and their parents or carers so that they can become familiar with the setting and the adults who will support and care for them there. Children can also be helped to prepare for this change by talking and explaining what is going to happen, listening to their concerns and reassuring them. Using appropriate resources such as books on starting primary school or secondary school or watching videos or TV programmes which shows the change positively.
Providing opportunities for imaginative play so children can express their feelings and fears can also help. A holistic approach is needed when engaging with pupils as outlined in the government intuitive Every Child Matters (2003). Its main aims are for every child, whatever their background or circumstances, to have the support they need to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. ECM also states that everyone in our society is responsible for securing these outcomes.
Families, communities, Government, public services, voluntary organisations, business, the media and others all have a part to play in valuing, protecting and promoting the interest of and listening to children. This has led to each of these themes having a detailed framework attached whose outcomes require multi-agency partnerships working together to achieve. The agencies in partnership may include children’s centres, early years, schools, children’s social work services, primary and secondary health services play work, and Child and Adolescent Mental Health services.
In the past it has been argued that children and families have received poorer services because of the failure of professionals to understand each other’s roles or to work together effectively in a multi-disciplinary manner. ECM seeks to change this, stressing that it is important that all professionals working with children are aware of the contribution that could be made by their own and each other’s service and to plan and deliver their work with children and young people accordingly.
The Equality Act 2010 states that schools cannot unlawfully discriminate against anyone including pupils because of their sex, race, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity and marriage or civil partnership. From April 2011 the Act introduced a single Equality Duty (public sector only) which applies to schools, this requires schools to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, harassment, and victimisation; advance equality of opportunity; and foster good relations.
Advancing equality of opportunity involves removing and minimising disadvantages, taking steps to meet people’s needs and encouraging participation in any activity in which participation by such people is disproportionately low. Fostering good relations involves tackling prejudice and promoting understanding. Schools along with many other policies will now have an Equality Policy. For example the school in which I volunteer has such a policy stating its mission statement and its aims and objectives with regards to equality.
As already stated there is both a legal and moral responsibility to treat all pupils fairly and as individuals with individual needs. Consequently, it is important that all who work as part of the school team are aware of this policy and of their responsibilities with regards to equality. In conclusion, in this assignment I have endeavoured to illustrate the importance of understanding all the aspects of child development 0 to 19 years in order to support them as they move through their time in education.