Multiple Choice and essay questions
1. Early social smiles are elicited:
A.Primarily by faces, so long as they look human.
B.About equally by faces and high-pitched voices.
C.Primarily by faces in the frontal position.
D.Primarily by the principal and secondary attachment figures.
2.Ainsworth describes insecure-avoidant children as:
A.Avoiding new situations whenever possible.
B.Avoiding strangers at all costs, but clinging to the mother.
C.Consistently independent in both the home and the Strange Situation.
D.Reacting defensively to the threat of maternal unresponsiveness.
3.Montessori materials with “control of error:”
A.Enable children to detect their own errors.
B.Keep errors to a minimum.
C.Stimulate thinking by presenting carefully controlled errors.
D.Guide children toward mastery in gradual steps.
4.In Montessori’s view, the teacher should be:
A.An authority to whom the child can turn for sound advice.
B.Mainly out of the picture.
C.Sociable and creative.
D.Affectionate but not smothering.
5.The text criticizes Werner for:
A.Being unclear on the discontinuity issue.
B.Not taking clear stands.
C.Overvaluing children’s experience.
D.Being too phenomenological.
6.In Kohlberg’s just community approach:
A.Moral dialogue and moral atmosphere frequently advance moral thinking two or more stages.
B.High school students are frequently friendlier to one another, but their moral thinking remains about the same.
C.There is little relationship between moral thought and moral behavior.
D.The moral thinking of high school students advances somewhat, primarily from stage 2 to 3.
7.Briefly contrast the views of Locke and Rousseau on how children develop.
8. Two part question:
a) What do ethologists, such as Lorenz, mean by imprinting on a parent-figure?
b) What observations led Bowlby to suggest that imprinting occurs in human infants? That is, what parallels between human infants and other species did he point to?
9.”For children to learn, we must praise their correct responses and correct their mistakes.” Would Montessori agree? Explain.
10.What did Werner mean by “microgenesis” and “microgenetic mobility?” Give examples. Discuss some valuable aspects of these concepts.
11.Piaget’s critics charge that he made development appear too slow. Discuss this criticism with respect to either: a) object permanence, b) conservation training, or c) Kamii’s teaching methods. Then, describe the Piagetian approach.
12. Compare conventional and postconventional morality in Kohlberg’s theory.