Management: Organizational Behavior Study Guide
MGT 341 Exam II Study Guide 1. Power (Article and Book) a. Meaning of Power – “The ability to influence various outcomes: or The ability to “make things happen” or “get things done” i. Individuals/Groups are presumed to have power based on the following factors: * Ability to cope with Uncertainty * Substitutability – the lower the substitutability the greater the power. * Organizational Centrality – the more central a person/group is to an organization; the greater the power. Role and Task Interdependence – if the activities of a person/group depend on the activities of another person/group -> the latter is considered to have greater control or power. b. Relationship of Power to Authority – Power and Authority are closely related to the concept of leadership. ii. Authority – Situations in which a person/group has been formally granted a leadership position. iii. Legitimate Power – formerly sanctioned by organization (Contractual) or informally supported by individual/group (Consensual). iv.
Executive / Managerial Power – directed towards creating and maintaining an active organization – ideal of transforming the organization to it’s highest potential. c. Appointed vs. Emergent Leaders (Formal vs. Informal) d. Types of Power: Yellow = Position Power Red = Personal Power Positional Power – Organization * Appointed leaders / formal power – **Most Common Form of Power** * Easily controlled by the organization. * Attributed to the Position rather than the individual. * Appointed from upper level management. 1.
Reward Power – The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 2. Legitimate Power – Power granted by virtue of one’s position. 3. Coercive Power – The extent to which a person can punish or physically/psychologically harm someone else (do bad things to a person). Personal Power – Personal/Individual – Emergent (i. e. as the individual becomes acclimated to the environment they may “emerge” professionally or when there is a group that does not have an apparent leader figure, one will “emerge” naturally. Attributed to the Individual rather than the organization. * Not easily influenced by the organization. * Influence is “earned” or gained after “proving ones self. ” Expert Power – The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values. (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 1. Referent Power – Exists when one person wants to be like someone else r imitates someone else. (based on admiration and respect). e. Situational Variables that can provide power. v. Ability to cope with uncertainty vi.
Substitutability – The extent to which someone else in the organization can “Substitute” for someone else. (The lower the substitutability the greater the power). vii. Organizational Centrality – the more central a person is to the task or processes of the organization, the greater the power. viii. Role and Take Interdependence – If the activities of a person or group are dependent on that of another person/group > the latter has the power. f. Leadership Motive Syndrome – The need for power must be greater than the need for affiliation.
Must refrain from being perceived as Impulsive, Coercive, or Manipulative. g. Acceptance Theory – manager’s authority is derived from subordinates’ acceptance, instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization h. Power Gap – Difference between formal positional power granted and the actual power required to accomplish goals. ix. How to “Fill the Gap” > * Acquiring Information & Ideas * Assess Who has Power * Good Relationships * Interpersonal Skills * Networks (power building tool) * Create Valued Agendas Image & Track Record 2. Leadership: i. Trait Approaches: x. Focus –Early approaches focused on those personal characteristics and attributes- physical, mental, and cultural. The research is often termed the “Great Person” theory of leadership (it was assumed leaders were different from average people based on personality and physical characteristics) “leaders are born, not made”. 5 personal characteristics seemed related to effective leadership: intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, high levels of energy and activity, and task-relevant knowledge. i. Problems – Relationship between these characteristics and evidence of effective leadership is not particularly strong. In the case of each characteristic, there have been significant studies that have either not shown any relationship with effective leadership or found a negative relationship. Thus, provides an incomplete picture of leadership xii. Reemergence of Interest – reemerged as a promising research area, especially in terms of examining specific traits related to the effectiveness/success in different organizational settings.
Studies from the 80’s and 90’s suggest there are a number of traits that do contribute to effective leadership: Drive, leadership motivation, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, resonance, cognitive ability and knowledge of the business. Alone, these do not guarantee leadership success, but they can help for success. xiii. Key Dimensions for “Magic” or Charismatic Leadership – 3 key dimensions are envisioning, energizing and enabling. “Natural Leaders”, energize-inspire, envisioning-create & communicate image, enabling- enable other people * Linking to Results – Finding the correct quality that gives you positive results.
The results should be balanced, strategic, lasting, and selfless. This link between attributes and results enriches our understanding of the relationship between leader traits and leadership effectiveness j. Behavioral Approaches: Focused on the various behavioral patterns or styles used by different leaders and the functions fulfilled by these individuals. xiv. Democratic – Leading through group input and decision making. xv. Autocratic – Leading by command xvi. Laissez-faire-Leading through minimal participation by the leader and allowance of total group freedom xvii. University of Michigan Studies – Research into behavioral aspects of leadership. Were concerned with two different leader orientations: one toward employees and the other toward production. The results suggested that a strong orientation to production resembled the autocratic leadership style, while a strong employee orientation was indicative of the democratic leadership style. xviii. *Ohio State Studies – Similar to Michigan studies. Two basic factors derived: initiating structure and consideration for others.
See pages 214-215 xix. *Managerial Grid > Concern for people and production, uses 5 sections on grid, want managers to be a 9,9. Most popular Concern for People Concern for People Concern for Results (1,1) = LCP & LCR, (1,9) = HFP & LCR, (9,9) = HCP & HCR, (9,1) = HCR & LCP. 1,9| | 9,9| | 5,5| | | | | 1,1| | 9,1| * Based on a “Concern for People” & “ Concern for Production” * Includes Motivation xx. Likert’s Linking Pin & System 4 ideas Likert found that the Traditional View of management (close supervision/high structure) only PARTLY explained the roles of managers. * Believed that managers are members of (2) different workgroups 1. Person is responsible FOR. > Subordinates 2. Person is responsible TO (Traditional View of Supervision). > Leaders * Power comes from the ability to excerpt power Upward and Lateral (Peer Managers) * (2) Elements must be looked at: i. Task Component ii. Human Component * Approach consists of Integrated Workgroups. * Managers are members of multiple Workgroups. xi. System 4- (participative)- supervisors trust their subordinates and goal setting and decision making are collaborative activities. k. Contingency Approaches – This perspective suggests that there is no “one best way” to lead in all situations; rather, the most effective style of leadership is contingent or dependent on the situation. Contingency theories combine the trait approach and the behavioral /functional theories to suggest the most effective leaders are those individuals who can adapt their styles to the demands of a situation, group, or values xxii.
Situational Leadership – (Life-Cycle Theory of Leadership) pg 225 xxiii. Path-Goal Model – The leader affects subordinates’ performance by clarifying the behaviors (paths) that will lead to desired rewards (goals). Types of leader behaviors: directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented. Situational factor which influence how leader behavior relates to subordinate satisfaction: personal characteristics of the subordinates, characteristics of environment. xxiv.
Vroom-Yetton Leadership-Participation Model – pg 227 xxv. Executive Coaching – Private meeting to discuss and work on personal learning and development issues. Feedback coaching (consultant)- giving feedback and assisting person in developing an action plan to address need or problems that are observed (360 feedback; 1-6 months, not too intensive) In-depth coaching (counselor)- closer, intimate relationship, multiple assessments and discussion extensively used to develop interpersonal skills, etc. 6-12 months+) Content coaching (tutor)- provide leader with knowledge and skills for specific area (IT, acquisitions, globalization, etc. ; time varies, but relatively short) l. 4. Substitutes for Leadership – Leadership substitutes: individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinates satisfactions and performance. Leadership neutralizers: factors that render ineffective leaders attempts to engage in various leadership behaviors. m.
Empowerment – Emphasizes a move away from leader dominance and expert problem solving to a system where organizational members, as the new experts, are continuously involved in organizational decision processes. Tannenbaum & Schmidt Leader Continuum pg 236. Keys to empowerment: 1- important for employees to have information on organizational performance and outcomes. 2-individuals must be rewarded for their contributions to organization performance. 3-team members must be provided with knowledge/skills that enables them to understand and contribute to performance. -individuals must be given the power to make to make decisions that influence work procedures and organizational direction. n. Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership. Transactional Leader- Leader-follower relation one of exchange; narrow view; supervision and “normal” leaders (managers) Transformational Leader(charismatic)- Visionary, inspirational figure; ability to articulate & communicate vision and charisma to energize and motivate people; strong empathy skills and accurate perception of others; “change” leaders. dark side”- transformational or “magic” leaders may become captivated by their vision of what’s best and their vision may not be appropriate. Focus on what they want to hear, do not learn easily from those around them and may damage organizational performance. i. e. cults and Hitler. Characteristics of narcissistic leaders- 1. Rely on manipulation and exploitation. 2. Impulsive and unconventional behavior. 3. Excessive impression management. 4. Poor administrative practices. 5. Unable to recognize flawed vision. 6. Fail to plan for succession.
These can be quite destructive. o. Gender Issues – Stereotypes, Research Findings, “Glass Ceiling”, Relation to International Expansion Stereotypes include “masculine” characteristics are managerial, “feminine” unmanagerial. Research- Men & women with high needs for power tend to have quite similar characteristics Reasons more women not in power & leadership positions mostly “institutional sexism” (glass ceiling) Many components important to international success are “feminine”- relationship development, communication, social sensitivity (&empowerment) p.
Categories of Leadership “Talents” Direction- vision, concepts, & focus Drive to Execute- achieve, compete, active, ego drive Relationships- relater, developer, networks, stimulate good feelings, team oriented Management systems- performance orientation, disciplined, arranger, strategic thinker 3. Intragroup Dynamics (ESSAY QUESTIONS) q. Reasons Groups Form- Security and need satisfaction, social need satisfaction, esteem need satisfaction, proximity and attraction, group goals, economic reason. Groups are there for a reason. . Types of Groups – Formal vs. Informal; Heterogeneous & Homogeneous Formal- are those that have established task-oriented goals and are explicitly formed as part of the organization- such as work groups, departments, and project teams. Rational, identifiable, exist to serve organization. Informal- are those that emerge over time through the interaction of organizational members. Don’t have formally assigned or stated goals, they do have implied or implicit goals, which are frequently recreational and interpersonal in nature.
Formal vs. informal- a rough distinction between these types of groups is that formal groups are represented on an organization chart, while informal (self-enacted) groups are not. Homogeneous- a group whose members have key aspects in common, in terms of either personal (e. g. attitudes, values, goals) or sociodemographic (e. g. education, age, gender, race) characteristics. Heterogeneous- groups are those that differ along significant dimensions. s. Stages of Group Development
Forming- group member will find out what they will be doing, the kind of leadership and behaviors that are acceptable, and the range of interpersonal and task relationships that are possible. Typically confusion, caution. Storming- described as the “shakedown”, where individual styles come into conflict. Characterized by tension, criticism, and confrontation among members. Constructive conflict can occur. Norming- resistance is overcome as the group establishes its rules/roles and standards. Develops intragroup cohesiveness, delineates (outlines) task standards and expectations.
This phase is marked by cooperation, collaboration, cohesion, and commitment . Performing- Accomplish tasks. Typical characteristics include challenge, creativity, group consciousness, and consideration among members. Adjourning/reforming- Closure (celebrate, rewards). Group members must either reassess their mission, roles, and processes or prepare for dissolution of the group. t. Group Attributes: xxvi. Individual & Group Status- status refers to the level/position of a person in the group or a group in an organization. Status differences. xxvii.
Roles – Meaning, Conflict, Ambiguity: Role refers to the various behaviors people expect from a person or a group in a particular position. Role Conflict is playing several roles that elicit certain expectations that often contradict one another. Role Ambiguity refers to when one receives unclear or ambiguous signals about what is expected of us in a particular role. xxviii. Social Identity Theory – how group affects people-:Group membership affects members’ sense of who they are, how they see themselves, how they feel about themselves and how they act in a group, they become what others expect them to be. xix. Norms – What are they; Pivotal vs. Peripheral: are the common standards or ideas that guide member behavior in established groups. Pivotal norms are those that are considered to be particularly important to the group/organization. Peripheral norms in contrast are those that are not as important to group members xxx. Status and Conformity – Relationships, Expedient vs. Private: Desire to be accepted by the group, making individuals susceptible to conformity effects. They feel pressure to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the groups norms or operative standards.
Expedient conformity is when a group member expresses attitudes and engages in behaviors that are acceptable to the group, while holding his private beliefs that are at odds with the group. Private acceptance is when an individual’s public and private attitudes and beliefs are compatible with the groups norms.. xxxi. Cohesiveness – What it means, Factors that lead to it, Impact on people, Electronic or Virtual Groups: Cohesiveness refers to the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and the resulting desire to remain in the group.
Factors that lead to cohesiveness include mutual attraction amongst group members, similar views, attitudes, likings, performance, and behavior. Impact on people: intergroup conflict pulls members together and encourages cooperation, such conflict may become too powerful leading to intragroup competition that reduces cohesiveness. Electronic or virtual groups can become cohesive xxxii. Group (Org) Commitment – Meaning, Affective vs. Continuance; Free Agents.
Group (org) commitment is the relative strength of individual group members feelings of identification with an attachment to a groups goals or tasks. Affective(emotionally attached) commitment means they maintain a relationship because they want to have high levels of group organization comfort and job challenge. Continuance commitment means they maintain a relationship because they have concerns about potential loss of pension, benefits, and a lack of other alternatives. *do it because they have to. xxxiii. Social Loafing – Meaning, How Common, How to deal with it. Reduced efforts of an individual group member when they perform as part of a group compared to individual efforts. “I wont work hard because someone else in the group will pick up slack”. More common in large groups. To deal with it make sure that group members understand the importance of their assignment as well as the mechanisms for group and individual accountability encouraging active participation. u. Lost Moon Exercise – v. Groupthink – This is a dynamic that diminishes the decision making capability of a group, try’s to minimize conflict and reach a consensus.
Symptoms of group think include illusion to invulnerability, collective efforts to rationalize/discount warnings, not questioning the group, stereotyped views of “enemy” leaders, pressuring members, self-censorship of deviations, illusion of unanimity, self-appointed “mind-guards”(mind-gaurds withhold information from a group to keep it in tact). How to guard against Everyone be a critical evaluator, somebody play devil’s advocate, be impartial, critical thinking, take time to study external factors. w.
Choice-Shift – (group polarization) occurs when the average of the group members post-discussion attitudes tends to be more extreme than average prediscussion attitudes, generally happens when everyone is already leaning in one direction, may become more extreme during virtual groups x. Brainstorming, Nominal Group & Delphi Techniques – basically “How” they operate, Role of Electronic Communications. Brainstorming-trying to expand by getting many different interacting groups and different ideas from each group Nominal group technique: no criticizing no talking to eachother or evaluating.
Do evaluation, ask everyone ideas, then rank (top to bottom) confidentially and independently, then mathematically pool them. You are trying to get everyone’s opinion without people criticizing them. Delphi technique: smaller group, completely anonymous (no one knows anybody). Has one mediator. Give them each the problem and they come up with their own answers/ideas and then exchange ideas/answers with everyone else and everybody comments on eachothers ideas. Repeat the process until you come up with a general consensus. 4. Organizational Socialization: y.
Meaning – A process of adaption during which entrants learn the values, norms, expectations, and established procedures for assuming a particular role and for becoming an accepted member of the group or organization z. Purpose –For new members it reduces role ambiguity and increases feeling of security since group expectations are clarified. For the group or organization the socialization process creates more behavioral uniformity among its members, thereby developing a basis for understanding and collaboration and reducing potential group conflict. . Stages – What they are; Sequence, & What goes on in each? 3 Stages: Anticipatory socialization- can be thought of as preliminary/prepatory stage during which time a person should be provided with realistic view of organizational goals and expectations, what the persons duties/responsibilities are, and the necessary task-related skills and abilities. Entrants can assess the fit between their values and needs of organizations. Organizational or group encounter- newcomer actually joins the group or organization.
Initiation period during which individual needs to balance personal and work-related demands that may conflict with one another, while simultaneously learning new tasks, clarifying role expectations and becoming acquainted with peers. Acquisition of group norms and values- If successfully accomplished, newcomer feels apart of group and becomes accepted |. Effects of Socialization on Performance-a process of adaption during which newcomers learn the values, norms, expectations for assuming a particular role and becoming a member of an organization.
It helps the group become more effective. }. Realistic Job Previews- People entering into an organization need to know what to expect with their jobs so they can prepare to cope effectively with work related pressures and demands. ~. Mentoring – Individual and Group Group mentoring- Group influence that emerges from its norms and roles provide a greater sense of phsychological support for newcomers, facilitates their inclusion and sense of belonging. Individual mentoring- Having someone with high regard/respect help coach and guide you and help you out.