Learning and Teaching Standard Grade Physical Education
This assignment will look into the effectivity of collaborative group work during theory lessons in Standard Grade Physical Education ( SG PE ) by presenting and set uping a constructivist larning environment within my schoolroom. The assignment will place the methods used and the ensuing informations from this short survey and highlight hereafter development chances.
Having ne’er officially been taught how to learn theory lessons for certification Physical Education I found myself following a standardized lesson format where the students faced the instructor, waiting for the transmittal of cognition ( Sotto 1994 ) . I found my lessons followed a similar, basic construction in which I would:
Set out my purposes and aims for the lesson, refer back to old work covered and identified my learning purposes.
I would explicate the current subject and inquire for pupil treatment sing anterior cognition.
I would supply an academic undertaking related to the subject.
I would summarize what has been covered and how it will associate with the following lesson/series of lessons.
The lessons were planned harmonizing to the section medium and long term programs to guarantee the content was covered at the designated clip graduated tables, something indispensable for Standard Grade Physical Education, peculiarly due to the obvious scrutiny force per unit areas.
My perceptual experience of these lesson were that they were successful as they had fluctuation in footings of the degree of treatments taking topographic point and types of undertakings related to the content, coupled with the fact that my formal scrutiny consequences from learning this manner were really good, ( harmonizing to SQA statistics ) . However, I felt the demand to research different methods of learning to guarantee that as a professional, I was run intoing the acquisition demands of the students in my category and developing my ain instruction competences. I was doubting that the method of learning nowadays within my schoolroom at this clip was supplying a ambitious adequate context for the students in my category, hence I was acute to look into other larning methodological analysiss. One method that interested me was the cultivation of a constructivist schoolroom.
In this assignment I will detail the methodological analysis adopted to implement the rules of constructivism, supply account sing the necessary intercession that was required and highlight the students ‘ perceptual experience sing this new larning methodological analysis and what they felt the impact to their acquisition was.
In this survey it was necessary to utilize two chief types of informations aggregation. First, the usage of picture entering to capture group treatment, group job work outing undertakings and concluding presentations. The 2nd method of informations aggregation was in the signifier of written information via larning logs, rating signifiers specifically associating to the group presentations and concluding subject rating questionnaires. This written information was designed to place the students ‘ perceptual experience of the subject ; how it was planned, carried out and what the students felt were the chief strengths and failings of working this manner and critically place the impact on their acquisition.
I felt that the informations aggregation methods were appropriate to the undertaking and provided relevant informations. However the deepness of information was the cardinal facet of the whether the chosen methods were effectual or non. For illustration, the larning logs were one facet of the written informations that provided the most dissatisfactory quality of information and one method that I may non utilize in the hereafter, the students did non lucubrate on the replies to the inquiries and did non supply me valid and utile information.
The usage of picture recording was wholly new to me in a schoolroom scene and one time the students were used to working with a picture recording equipment it provided some first-class information and provided a true penetration into the group puting. The questionnaires provided me a valuable penetration into the students ‘ ideas and feelings about how successful this subject was and this method allowed me to measure the overall attack. As with any type of research, the method chosen will hold strengths and failings. I have summarised these below in tabular arraies 1 and 2:
Strengths & A ; Weaknesses of Video Camera Recordings
Enables all state of affairss to be invariably reviewed.
Beginning of jobs can be diagnosed.
Behavioural forms of instructor and students can be seen.
Forms of advancement over long periods can be clearly charted.
Can be really conspicuous and distracting.
If camera is directed by operator, it will merely enter that which he or she deems to be of importance ; operator acts as editor.
( Beginning: Hopkins 2002 )
The usage of picture recording allowed me to garner information straight associating to the group treatment ; it encapsulated the nature of the treatments and provided a footing from which the particular discourse could be analysed. This was improbably helpful when the existent quality of treatment was scrutinised.
Strengths & A ; Weaknesses of Questionnaires
Easy to administrate ; quick to make full in
Easy to follow up
Provides direct comparing of groups and persons
Provides feedback on:
Adequacy of resources
Adequacy of instructor aid
Preparation for following session
Decisions at terminal of term.
Datas are quantifiable
Analysis is clip devouring
Extensive readying to acquire clear and relevant inquiries
Difficult to acquire inquiries that explore deepness
Effectiveness depends really much on reading ability and comprehension of the kid
Children may be fearful of replying honestly
Children will seek to bring forth ‘right ‘ replies
( Beginning: Hopkins 2002 )
I felt that the terminal of topic rating questionnaire provided me with an penetration into the positions of the students and provided me with a footing to work from. The feedback from the students was utile as it gave me an apprehension of their perceptual experience of my schemes and provided me with way for future development. The consequences from the pupil rating signifiers ( both group and self rating ) provided me with quantitative informations that could be fed back to the students during the plenary session at the terminal of the block, this information was utile as it provided information on the group scores and informed the students which group they thought provided the best presentation. ( See appendix? ? for this information ) .
Both methods of informations aggregation provided valid and utile information which was analysed and used to inform the participants ( and myself ) of the consequences of working this manner. There was qualitative informations produced in the signifier of the transcripts which were annotated and via the terminal of subject student rating questionnaires. They were scrutinised to place relevant information that could inform farther pattern. Quantitative information was produced by the students in the signifier of their appraisal of each others ‘ presentations and from their ain ego rating signifiers. This information was straightforward to analyze and as mentioned provided an built-in portion of the plenary session.
Having gained about 10 old ages of learning experience I found myself in an unusual place where I was approximately to get down a new subject with my S3 SG PE category with no existent program to map out the advancement of the category ‘ acquisition and apprehension of their new subject. I felt aroused and terrified in equal steps of following a constructivist attack ; nevertheless I felt comforted by the sum of research I had undertaken in following this attack and felt confident of the benefits that the students would derive from larning this manner. To state I had no existent program in topographic point would non be purely true as in my head I had a mental image of how I would wish the way of larning to take but as will be seen subsequently in this survey this is the Southern Cross of the instructor releasing control of their schoolroom and inquiring the students to take charge of their ain acquisition as at times it will take you to some surprising topographic points. ( Clarke, 2005 ) . One critical constituent of this impression was organizing my schoolroom to guarantee the students co-operated in a collaborative mode in little groups.
Wood ( 1998 ) summarises Vygotsky ‘s position of acquisition as “ co-operatively achieved success ” and this is something that I as a practioner wanted to research farther. I felt the rule of co-operation was something that I did of course, nevertheless, after probe I realised that the co-operation I assumed was happening, was between the students and myself as category instructor and non the students with their equals. Vygotsky suggests that kids learn by direction from others and the acquisition procedure is strengthened if the undertaking is learnt in a co-operative mode. After scrutiny, I felt that for the benefit of my pattern I had to look into different methods of learning theory lessons in PE to guarantee that “ existent acquisition ” can take topographic point ( Sotto 1994 ) .
Literature from Learning and Teaching Scotland ( LTS, 2009 ) environing Curriculum for Excellence ( aCfE. ) highlights the importance of using active and collaborative acquisition methods to heighten the larning experience based on rules of Assessment is For Learning ( AiFL ) . This provided me with the drift to critically analyze my attacks to learning. After reading Brooks and Brooks ‘ ( 1999 ) description of the constructivist schoolroom and besides the impact constructivist rules can hold on the effectual usage of formative appraisal ( Clarke, 2005 ) I wanted to look into the application of such rules and mensurate the impact this would do on my instruction. As Clarke ( 2005 ) high spots, some practioners avoid hazards due to being “ embedded in old ways of learning ” and I was determined non to go such a instructor, I planned to make this by consistently releasing control of the way of larning to the students.
I wanted to look into the chance of the students taking charge of the way of their acquisition by passing over every bit much control to the category in a move towards making a constructivist larning environment. I organised the students in to groups of four, seeking to guarantee each group was every bit diverse as possible in footings of academic ability and friendly relationship groups. I wanted to guarantee that the members of the group would non be over familiar with each other as that may impede the quality of the work produced ( Azmitia & A ; Hesser, 1993 ) . It was critical that the students understood and appreciated that there would be a alteration to their ‘normal ‘ lesson format and this afforded me the chance to supply an account of why I was following a constructivist manner and why I was seting them in charge.
Bruner ( 1990 ) provides the undermentioned rules of constructivistic acquisition:
Direction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to larn ( preparedness ) .
Direction must be structured so that it can be easy grasped by the student ( coiling administration ) .
Direction should be designed to ease extrapolation and or make full in the spreads ( traveling beyond the information given ) .
Advocates of a constructivistic attack suggest that instructors should foremost see the cognition and experiences of their students. The school course of study should so be built so that students can spread out and develop this cognition and experience by linking them to new acquisition. Whereas, candidates of the behavioral attack, on the other manus, advocate first make up one’s minding what cognition or accomplishments students should get and so developing course of study that will supply for their development. ( Huitt, 2009 ) .
I was really witting of being true to the Bruner ‘s above rules as I wanted to guarantee I knew all the necessary and relevant information sing the students ‘ old experiences related to this subject. To make this I met with the Biology section. There are natural crossing overs between Biology and PE and this meeting allowed me the chance to size up the subject content in the S1-3 course of study and utilize this information to estimate a starting point for the first brainstorming undertaking. I wanted the students to show “ preparedness ” to larn ( Bruner, 1990 ) .
Using a model developed by Dunn and Larson ( 1998 ) to explicate the procedure of implementing simple degree engineering course of study, Alesandrini and Larson ( 2002 ) specified 10 events that provide the foundation for a constructivistic attack to learning and larning. These 10 events were so categorised into five chief constituents of an effectual constructivistic lesson/ series of lessons: probe, innovation, execution, rating, and jubilation. This became the foundation of my attack to cultivating a constructivist larning environment and the specific attack will be detailed within the timeline subdivision of this ego survey.
The first undertaking for the students was to come up with a subject rubric through a whole category verbal treatment ( they agreed upon “ Body in Action ” ) and became the focal point of this group work session, to my surprise this subject rubric was non excessively dissimilar from the class stuff in PE which asks students to look into The Human Body in Action, ( it became clear that this subject rubric was besides the same rubric the Biology section uses-possible happenstance? ) .
The students were so given two undertakings ; one an person undertaking which was to finish a acquisition log ( See appendix? ? for further inside informations ) the 2nd undertaking was a group undertaking that involved the students brainstorming about the subject content around this new rubric. This session was filmed and the resulting discourse was transcribed and analysed. See appendix? ? for illustrations of pupil work from these insight Sessionss. From this analysis it became evident that the quality of the group treatment I had hoped the category would accomplish was manner below the expected criterion. This critical incident became the focal point of my first intercession as it challenged my thought by coercing me to look into the ground why the initial group work was of such a hapless criterion.
To antagonize this I investigated comparings with the work undertaken by Mercer ( cited in Wegerif et al 1999 ) it became evident that the quality of treatment could be categorised as what Mercer describes as “ disputational talk ” . This type of talk is characterised by dissension and individualized determination devising. There were few efforts to pool resources, or to offer constructive unfavorable judgment or suggestions. Disputational talk besides has some characteristic discourse characteristics notably short exchanges dwelling of averments and counter-assertions ( Mercer, 1996 ) . This was demonstrated by the deficiency of verbal interaction of group 2 and the independent determination doing made by JW who interestingly was the member of the group keeping the pen, suggestions were seldom offered and when this occurred the suggestions made were met with neglect instead than enthusiasm to research the thoughts further ( See appendix? ? for the annotated trascipt ) . Therefore, it was necessary to place why this was go oning and how I could better the quality of group treatment.
The precedence for me as a practioner was to seek and place methods whereby the group work undertaken started to come on towards “ explorative talk ” ( Mercer, 1996 ) . This highlights the implicit in rule that Gillies and Khan ( 2007 ) commentate on that students need to be explicitly taught how to work successfully in groups. Therefore before I could continue look intoing the cultivation of a constructivist schoolroom, I had to look into how to promote each group to work co-operatively. This was done by using the rules environing successful group work as studied by Gillies ( 2004 ) , these were:
Actively listening to others ;
Deciding struggles democratically ;
Working with others to measure the group ‘s advancement.
I set the category three distinct job work outing challenges in an effort to better their abilities to work together ; two in groups of eight and one in the original groups of four. I felt this attack was non merely relevant to this age group but related to the research undertaken by Gillies would give some really promising consequences. It was my purpose to guarantee that the nature of these job work outing undertakings forced the groups to interact in a constructive mode by supplying co-operatively achieved aims.
All members of the group were every bit of import to the success of work outing the undertaking, therefore it was necessary that all positions were considered but more significantly valued. Decisions had to be made on a democratic footing which involved all members of the group working together to make the common end, this would merely be achieved by actively listening to each other and making understandings that all members were consulted upon, but more significantly agreed upon. It was at this point I assessed the impact of these Sessionss by analyzing the treatment of group two to place the degree of betterment made, this was critical to guarantee that the students were in a place to transport on with their undertaking work.
From my analysis it was evident that there was now an betterment in the type of treatments the group were involved in ; sufficient plenty for me to be confident that the move towards utilizing constructivist rules with this category was traveling to be good for the students. ( See appendix? ? for annotated transcript ) . This meant that I could once more follow the constructivist principle with assurance.
Class organised into groups. Explanation given to pupils to inform them that they were in charge of their acquisition for this block. Class treatment sing subject rubric.
Each group brainstorms and enter a list of words / footings they feel are associated with the subject rubric “ Body in Action ” .
Spider diagram / head map is produced by each group detailing what they feel are the relevant countries of probe.
Amalgamation of all four programs by B Sloan to place 4 subject countries.
Intervention Session 1
Due to the hapless quality of treatment taking topographic point, it was necessary to work on the groups abilities to co-operate and work in a collaborative mode.
Intervention Session 2
Invention and Initial Implementation
Group set a mini undertaking to set up if any betterment had been made in footings of collaborative group work. Sufficient betterment made and each group selects project focal point.
Group probe work at library.
Group probe work at library utilizing computing machines.
Further Implementation and Evaluation
1st bill of exchange of presentations, polish and initial rating.
Concluding presentations by each group.
Plenary session and proclamation of winning presentation.
As stated antecedently Alesandrini and Larson ( 2002 ) specified 10 events that I have used as the foundation for my attack to constructivistic acquisition. These were:
Contextualising: As category instructor I explained the procedure to the whole category, so worked with students in little groups to assist them link their old experiences to the undertaking at manus.
Clarifying: I asked the students to discourse the undertaking among themselves in their groups of four and as instructor I facilitated the students as they strived to find what they needed to cognize in order to finish the undertaking.
Asking: During this phase the students begin the procedure of geting the necessary cognition and accomplishments they needed to finish the undertaking ; as category instructor I tried to ease this procedure by inquiring inquiries and assisting students place and understand believable resources.
Invention and Initial Implementation
Planning: Students in each group begin to organize their cognition and develop some initial programs as to how to near the undertaking.
Gaining: Students develop a first bill of exchange or get downing merchandise that will run into the stated standards for the undertaking. Each little group will develop an original attack and no two will look precisely likewise.
Further Implementation and Evaluation
Testing: The students check their undertaking against the standards to see if it meets the specifications. It is expected that the first effort will necessitate some or several alterations.
Modifying: Students rework their undertaking in footings of lacks they may hold identified. They so retest and modify until they have a finished undertaking that meets the declared standards.
Interpretation: Pupils describe the value of the undertaking relation to their backgrounds and experience ; they portion this with their ain group.
Reflecting: Students broaden their ratings of the undertaking and set it in larger context.
Celebration: Students present their undertakings to the larger group while the larger group acknowledges the value of the attempt and consequences of the group and assesses the public presentation of each group in 3 classs.
Having now completed the subject, I asked the category to finish a questionnaire to estimate their response to this new attack ( appendix? ? ) . 11 out of 16 students noticed that the subject was different to the old 1. They noticed that:
“ more clip in schoolroom making group work ”
“ we worked in groups more and Mr Sloan did less speaking! ”
“ we had to make a presentation ”
“ our presentations were filmed and we used the smartboards ”
“ Body in Action was the first subject we have done that we really spoke about, the first 1 was done through practical work ”
“ It was much more groupy and chatty every bit good as synergistic ”
“ we spent a batch of clip in the schoolroom alternatively of making it outside ”
“ we planned it as a category ”
When asked about what they enjoyed about the subject, they responded:
“ I enjoyed happening facts about the organic structure, I did n’t cognize there were so many articulations. I besides liked the job work outing undertakings ”
“ Bing able to larn a batch of things about the organic structure we did n’t cognize ”
“ Planning for our presentations and utilizing the computing machines to look into the bosom. I like watching the groups making their presentations ”
“ Research for the presentations ”
“ It was merriment! ”
“ the subject was interesting ”
The students were besides given the chance to state what they did non bask about the subject. Very few responded:
“ sometimes my group mucked about and were lazy ”
“ Being bossed about ”
“ presentation was chilling ”
When asked about what they felt they learned from this subject they said:
“ A batch about the organic structure and how it works ”
“ how the human skeleton is put together ”
“ how the organic structure works during athletics and PE ”
“ tonss about the bosom and lungs ”
When asked which subject was best for their acquisition, 12 chose Body in Action. Although there were clearly some students who did non prosecute with this subject every bit to the full as others, the bulk of students enjoyed it and agreed that it was good to their acquisition. The two most common subjects running through the student responses is their grasp of the chance to lend to the planning of the subject and the fluctuation of activities – particularly during the research prior to making their presentations, it is interesting that they value their engagement in structuring their ain acquisition so extremely and bask research work.
My ain appraisal of the subject was similar to the students. I was encouraged and inspired by the results of the attacks used throughout. By merely get downing the subject from a somewhat altered point of view, the full acquisition procedure altered. Alternatively of stating the category what we were traveling to make, I was inquiring the category what they wanted to larn. At each phase, I felt this altered point of view raised the motive of the category which led to an highly dynamic and energetic schoolroom which was focused on larning. This acquisition, was besides much more varied than in the yesteryear. Equally good as larning the necessary facts sing the human organic structure, the students were besides developing their accomplishments, runing from working in a group, to planning and showing information. This is really much in line with the aims of aCfE.
Those recommending a constructivistic attack should ever see that there are a assortment of rules from larning theories that can be utilised within application of constructivism. For illustration, when working on a student ‘s larning it is surely appropriate to learn a particular accomplishment utilizing direct direction, observe the students practising the accomplishment, and supplying disciplinary feedback to guarantee command starts to happen. The major issue is whether to get down with a course of study that is taught step-by-step in an inductive mode as suggested by the behavior theoreticians or to get down with the student ‘s cognition and apprehensions and assist the kid fill in spreads necessary to work out a situation-specific job as suggested by the constructivists.
Principles of larning from an information treating position such as recognizing the bounds of short-run memory, supplying many chances for students to place the connexion between anterior cognition to current acquisition, and recognizing the demand for separated pattern can besides be implemented within a constructivistic attack. Again, the major differentiation is in where to get down: with a predesigned course of study or with the student ‘s experiences and cognition base.
This so begs the inquiry, what is the right attack? In my position the reply is both! If we start with the student ‘s cognition base before we have established coveted terminal ends, there is a inclination to hold the students merely “ do advancement, ” thereby restricting students who are non adequately prepared. These students may develop equal thought accomplishments, but can hold big spreads in their cognition and accomplishments. On the other manus, if weA focal point merely on coveted terminal ends, particularly knowledge ends, without consideration of the student ‘s acquired cognition and background, we run the hazard of developing cognition and accomplishments that have no significance to the scholar and are hence easy forgotten.
The purpose of this ego survey was to critically reflect on my instruction pattern in order to place progressive paths with which my abilities as a practioner are enhanced. I attempted to make this by look intoing the usage of collaborative group work during theory lessons in Standard Grade Physical Education through the debut and constitution of a constructivist larning environment within my schoolroom. I have adopted attacks that were different to my old pattern in a systematic manner, in order to dispute me as both a scholar and as a instructor. I have found myself trying to change over my schoolroom from an Orthodox ‘instructive ‘ one, to one based on the rules of constructivism within a collaborative group puting. The types of job work outing challenges I used acted as an debut into how group work can be developed but I am realistic plenty to understand that this should be an on-going procedure instead than a one-off speedy hole. These types of challenges will inform the students of the potency of group work but will non hold a durable consequence on future group work.
For cardinal alterations to happen when these students work in groups there must be a alteration in the students ‘ mentality and this must be reinforced every lesson, therefore the success of this factor may be out with the parametric quantities or timescale of this survey. However, what encouraged me was that even after this short intercession I was pleased to describe that sufficient betterments had been made and the group work progressed to a point whereby the students produced some first-class presentations.
This journey has non merely exposed the scholars to new methods of schoolroom working it has besides enabled me to travel out of my comfort zone and happen motive and challenge in following a new attack, something I have exhaustively enjoyed making. This journey has inspired me to keep the impulse gained by making this ego survey and place other countries of learning Physical Education that could profit from following this attack to acquisition.