Job Satisfaction and Employees Performance
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0 Background of the study of Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance in Total Nigeria Plc. The Total Nigeria PLC is a privately held, owned and managed industrial lubrication, oil and gas manufacturing company spread across the geographical regions and districts in Nigeria. The company has been a part of the Nigeria manufacturing landscape since 1962 and has earned the reputation as one of the key suppliers for lubrication equipment, oil and gas products in the industry.
It manufactures petrol, kerosene, diesel, cooking gas, car care products, insecticides and lubricants such as oilers spray systems, applicators and condition monitoring equipment. Total Nigeria Plc. is dedicated to selling its products through distribution. TOTAL is the world’s fourth-largest publicly-traded integrated oil and gas company, with operations in more than 130 countries pning all aspects of the petroleum industry, including Upstream operations (oil and gas exploration, development and production, LNG) and Downstream operations (refining, marketing and the trading and shipping of crude oil and petroleum products ).
TOTAL employees more than 95,000 employees worldwide, TOTAL reported sales of €153. 8 billion in 2006. TOTAL Upstream activities are carried out by three subsidiary companies in Nigeria. They are: 1. Total Export and Production Nigeria Limited (TEPNG) 2. Total Upstream Nigeria Limited (TUPNL) for oil/gas 3. Total Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Limited for gas. They are committed partners in Nigeria’s growth and improvement: what they take out of the ground, they put into the economy.
Their long term vision is to remain Nigeria’s preferred operator, promoting the nation’s economy through their various activities, and all the while contributing positively to the sustainable development of its communities. Samuel Emeka Mbah (Unilag Research Paper): There is a general consensus that there exists a managerial problem of finding successful mechanism of retaining employees especially in a job environment that is characterized by constant yearnings for pay rise.
Employee job satisfaction has influence on employee turnover in organisations. The implication of this is that the extent to which an organisation is able to retain its employees’ depend on the level of job satisfaction that are made available to these workers. Job satisfaction is known to have positive impact on employee turnover intentions. It means that dissatisfaction on the job increases or will increase the rate of employee turnover intention in organisation. Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job.
Dessler (1978:37) refers to job satisfaction, ‘as the degree of needs satisfaction that is derived from and or experienced on the job’. He affirms to the ability of employees in an organisation aspirations, feeling happy doing their job with the hope that their needs will be achieved. A job is a group of positions, which involves essentially the same duties, responsibility, skill and knowledge”. Scholars and human resource professionals generally make a distinction between affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction.
Affective job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive job satisfaction which is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, pension arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs. Consequently, the inability of employees to achieve their needs will amount to dissatisfaction because job satisfaction is a general attitude towards an individual’s job, and the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.
It has been observed that a person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude towards the job while the person who is dissatisfied with the job holds negative attitude about the job. Also satisfied employees are known to show higher level work performance in organisations. By analysing job satisfaction an organisation can possibly increase positive outcomes such as employee satisfaction and performance, and may decrease absenteeism and turnover. 1. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Employees in Total Nigeria Plc. lay important roles, so employee’s satisfaction is a very essential one; hence there arises a need to study the job satisfaction of oil, gas and lubrication employees. The Total Nigeria Plc. has been a part of the Nigerian industrial setting for over 40years. Investigating the employee’s value-perception can aid in managers building and creating work environments that help them to achieve high levels of employee satisfaction. The intention of investigating employee job satisfaction is therefore a step toward creating a healthy psychological contract for people at work (Palmer, 1999, Pg. ). This research therefore, seeks to evaluate the antecedents of employee turnover in the Total Nigeria PLC with a view to understanding its retention strategy. It would also evaluate the level of employee job satisfaction in relation to pay, nature of work and supervision as well as recommend ways of sustaining or improving on the company’s retention strategy. This research study would help in mapping out strategies and methods that would foster objective conclusions. 1. 2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Job satisfaction can be used as a powerful tool to achieve goal congruency and enhance employee motivation. It has been observed and noted that employees who find self-identity within the organisational context are motivated even in the face of adversity and channel their efforts towards the achievement of organisational goals. The absence of employee motivation may have significant negative implications to the company achieving its strategy. The objectives of this research are: 1. To access the general level of job satisfaction in Total Nigeria Plc. . To determine the nature of the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction level and their performance. 3. To determine the major sources of dissatisfaction in Total Nigeria Plc. 4. To recommend some measures for improving the satisfaction level of the employees. This research will reinforce the knowledge on the holistic approach to job satisfaction from corporate strategy to individual level. It would also help in the academic understanding and development in the field of change management with specific reference to job satisfaction.
It will be useful to Total Nigeria Plc. , other state owned enterprises, governmental and private sector organisations in Nigeria in the implementation of job satisfaction. It will give an overview of management and employees’ understanding of the whole concept of job satisfaction, their level of participation in its implementation, from strategy development, goal setting to performance reviews, and their perception regarding its impact on the achievement of corporate objectives. 1. 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. How can the general level of job satisfaction in Total Nigeria Plc. e accessed? 2. How can the nature of the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction level and their performance be determined? 3. How can the major sources of dissatisfaction in Total Nigeria Plc. Be determined? 4. Recommend some measures for improving the satisfaction level of employees? 1. 4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 1. There is no association between working conditions and job satisfaction. 2. There is no association between rewards provided and job satisfaction. 3. There is no association between welfare measures and job satisfaction. . There is no association between job security and job satisfaction. 1. 5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1. Job satisfaction should be the major determinants of an employee organizational behaviour. 2. A satisfied employee will be having positive attitude towards his or her job and would go beyond the normal expectation in his or her job. 3. A person who places high importance on imagination, independence and freedom is likely to be poorly matched with an organization that seeks conformity from its employees. 1. 6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study included all employees of the organisation, with the exception of the researcher and the CEO and regional managers. All the findings and observations made in the study are purely based on the respondents’ answers which may be biased. Time and cost is also another constraint. 1. 6 DEFINITION OF TERMS PLC – Public Liability Company LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas TEPNG – Total Export and Production Nigeria Limited Unilag – University of Nigeria, Lagos State CEO – Chief Executive Officer TUPNL – Total Upstream Nigeria Limited