Structuralisms Architecture Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. What is Islam? * The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning “peace” and “submission. ” * Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one’s life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. * The same Arabic root word gives us “Salaam Alaskan,” (“Peace be with you”), the universal Muslim reediting.
Geographical * The Moslem faith flourished in the countries of Southern Asia and North Africa. * Other important communities include Zanzibar, Madagascar and China. * In the 20th century mobility, Islam was brought throughout the world as far as Sydney and South shields. * The spread of Islam has been frequently associated with military conquest, racial movements and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established populations. * The most important were the Arab expansion northwards and westwards out of the Arabian peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish ND Mongol groups South, Southeast and Southwest of Central Asia.
The Islamic world Geological * The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in building tradition and the important techniques of exploitation of natural resources for building work and trade in building materials had long been established. * Brick making and pipes’ walling was almost universal in the alluvial plains * Cooling effect of structures with very heavy walls and high rooms has been widely exploited. * Unprotected circulation are common. History * A. D. 622 – the year of the Hegira, when Mohammed moved from Mecca to Medina.
Immediately after his death in 632 – the concerted efforts of the Arabian Tibet carried death as conquerors into Central Asia and westward towards the Atlantic. Social * The Arab group which were the spearhead of advanced Islam ,were essentially tribal, and in consequence the behavior patterns and attributes of emergent Islamic societies were based on traditions of the desert. * Public life was reserved for men. * Women play a secondary role, to be part of the household – the harem. In public, she is protected by the anonymity of the veil. * Equality was only granted to the
Aromatic groups. * “peoples of the book” -Jews and Christians * Freedom of worship and interval government. Religious * Islam is the last of the three great religions of the middle east. * Its essence is contained in a simple sentence, which is both the profession of faith and the credo of its adherents * There is only one God and his prophet Mohammed. * Philosophy of life and government. * The Koran – is regarded as the revelation through the medium of the prophet Mohammed. * The Width – is the collection of his sayings or injunctions and is of lesser weight.
The law – is extracted from the prophet’s instructions, from tradition and sample. * An acceptance of the transitory nature of earthly life; personal humility; an abhorrence of images worship. * The important architectural endeavor is normally expended on buildings having a direct social or community purpose, including worships; that decorations tends toward the abstract, using geometric, calligraphic and plant motifs , with a preference for a uniform field of decoration rather than a focal element; and that a basic conservatism discouraged innovations and favored established forms
Terminologies * Massed (Persia, India) – mosque or a place of worship. * Jam – mosque, principal place of worship, or use of the building for Friday prayers * Messed (Turkey) – small * Salami – men’s or prayer house * Madras (Egypt) * Menders (Turkey) – religious college and mosque. * Sara; Sera – palace Building Components * Miramar – niche oriented towards Mecca * Member – raised platform for ceremonial announcements open-fronted vault facing on to a court * ABA – gateway * Sans – courtyard of a mosque * Minaret – tower from which call to prayer was made.
Harem – women’s or private quarter’s of a house or palace quest’s quarters * Kibble; Kibble – axis oriented towards Mecca * Chatter (India) – kiosk Personnel * Muezzin – caller who summons the faithful to prayer * Imam – man who leads the congregation at prayer * ‘wan; Ivan (Persia) – * Caliph – successor to the prophet as military, Judicial and spiritual leader of Islam Architectural Character * Majority of Islamic buildings are fundamentally related to a principal axis. This axis is frequently extended into a formal landscape which is integral part of the sign. The prime axis was the kibble, the general concept was derived from the line of balance and symmetry implicit in the concept of perfect creation, as seen in gardens and buildings. * Islamic architecture is centered upon God. At its heart is the Mosque and inward – looking building whose prime purpose is contemplation and prayer. * Mosque may serve as a school, transactions may be made there and storage for treasures. * Minaret – a tower from whose top the Muezzin gave the call to prayer. * Miramar – a niche where the leader of the congregation (the Imam) sakes his prayers. Menders/Madras – college * Han/Caravanserai’s – the hostel * The courtyard – the sides were punctuated with gateways, prayer chambers, or arched porches ‘wants. Architecture Forms and Styles of Mosques and buildings in Muslim countries Forms – Many forms of Islamic architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. Sheehan – The traditional Islamic courtyard, a Sheehan in Arabic, is found in secular and religious structures.
When within a accidence or other secular building is a private courtyard and walled garden. A Sheehan – courtyard is in within almost every mosque in Islamic architecture. The courtyards are open to the sky and surrounded on all sides by structures with halls and rooms, and often a shaded semi-open arcade. Arabesque – An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls and window screens of mosques and Muslim homes and buildings, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants, shapes and sometimes animals (specifically birds).
Calligraphy – is associated with geometric Islamic art (the Arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. Examples Mosque – A Muslim house of worship Minaret – A tall tower in, or continuous to a mosque arch stairs leading up to one or more balconies from which the faithful are called to prayer. Kiosk – a small pavilion, usually open, built in gardens and parks Pointed arch – a two- and four- centered and generally constructed a true arch, Hough corbelled examples were common in India.