Impact of Nationalism
The rise of nationalism in Zambia started with the formation of welfare societies as it advanced to trade union as well as to the formation of political parties which led to people identify themselves as belong to one race. The first welfare society was formed by Donald Siwale and was called Mwenzu welfare society in 1912, in 1939, the formation of northern Rhodesia African union workers took root, and the second world war speeded up nationalism. In 1946, the Federation of African Welfare Societies was formed.
Two years later the Mineworkers Union was created and in the same year the Federation of African Welfare Societies reformed itself as the Northern Rhodesia African Nationalist Congress (ANC), under the leadership of Harry Nkumbula. A union for railway workers was established in 1949. In 1958, some members broke away from ANC and formed ZANC and Kenneth Kaunda become the leader and the part was banned. And the following year in 1959, UNIP was formed.
There were violent uprising and acts of sabotage caused by UNIP and in 1964, Zambia become sovereign state Nationalism has had the affirmative impact to the Zambian culture as it transcended regional and ethnic division and pned the colony, this helped the people to fight for their rights. The struggle for independence along region and ethnic group groups would have being difficult and delay the attainment of freedom from the colonial rules but the integration of different ethnic groups and region gave birth to a new state.
Nationalism in its historical context can be defined as an ideological movement aimed at attaining and maintaining the identity and unity through social cohesion and autonomy through national self-determination of a “nation,” or a peoples united under a “national” banner ( Nationalism has also being defined as the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity, and the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve or sustain self-determination.
Nationalism in a wider sense is any complex of attitudes, claims and directives for action ascribing a fundamental political, moral and cultural value to nation and nationality and deriving obligations (for individual members of the nation, and for any involved third parties, individual or collective) from this ascribed value. There is a fair amount of agreement about what is historically the most paradigmatic form of nationalism.
It is the one which features the supremacy of the nation’s claims over other claims to individual allegiance, and which features full sovereignty as the persistent aim of its political program, therefore nationalism has a positive impact on Zambia’s culture as it makes citizens realise that individual duties and loyalty are less important compared to national duties and loyalty.
Adding to this is that citizen will accept the autonomy of their government and its responsibility. Nationalism is essential as it safeguard the moral life of communities since it is the only form of political institution capable of protecting communities from the threats of globalization and assimilation, for example, the introduction of gay rights has being in vain as the culture of Zambia does not support it as it is considered to be immoral.
Nationalism has positively impacted on Zambian culture as it provide an overall sense of unity across all groups and acceptance of all human beings across the country, everyone feels attached to the unitary state and there is no tribal or individuals who are superior than others, nationalism has instil to every Zambian the spirit of Zambian identity despite of their region and ethnic belonging, for instance, to avoid tribalism and regionalism, DR Kaunda introduced the a system where he disseminated the ethnic groups into different areas despite of ethnic or region group one belonged, everyone one had a sense of belonging, identity and a spirit of Zambian where ever they were sent. Therefore nationalism has impacted the culture of acceptance among Zambians.
Nationalism promotes liberty through national self-determination which is a form of positive liberty, the ability to make decisions and take actions that express what is a national value. Second, nationalism may also support the positive liberty of individuals. The negative impact of nationalism to Zambian culture is that the members of minority group are often disadvantaged in relation to a dominant culture because they have to rely on those with the same beliefs, custom and culture to conduct the affairs of daily life. Since freedom to conduct one’s daily life is a primary good, and it is difficult to change or give up reliance on one’s minority culture to attain that good, this reliance can lead to certain inequalities if special measures are not taken. Spontaneous nation-building by the majority has to be moderated
The stand out point on the depressing impact of nationalism to Zambian culture is that it has to conflict, those who are not in support of the dominant culture had crushed with the government and the majority. For instance, in late July and early August some 10,000 Lumpa church members in the Northern Province, revolted. The religious sect, which combines African and Christian beliefs, was ruled by Alice Lenshina, formerly a Presbyterian. By forbidding Lumpas to join political parties, she had been responsible for previous clashes with the UNIP. A resettling of Lumpa villages by the government touched off the revolt. After being taken into custody, Alice Lenshina ordered her followers to lay down their arms, but not before there were over 600 dead, 350 wounded, and 5,000 homeless