1. Essay-writing  Essay The word Essay is defined in “The Concise Oxford Dictionary” as “a literary composition (usually prose and short) on any subject.“  It is a written composition giving expression to one’s own personal ideas or opinions on some topic; but the term usually covers also any written composition, whether it expresses personal opinions, or gives information on any given subject, or details of a narrative or description.

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2. Characteristics of Essay-writing  A good essay must contain the following characteristics:  Unity  Order  Brevity  Style  Personal Touch  An essay must be a unity, treating in an orderly manner of one subject; it should be concisely written and not too long, and the style should by simple, direct and clear; and it should have an individuality, or show the personal touch of the writer.

3. Classification of Essay-Writing Essays may be classified as:  Narrative  Descriptive  Expository  Reflective  Imaginative

4. Classification of Essay- Writing(cont’d)  Narrative: In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. While telling a story may sound easy to do, the narrative essay challenges students to think and write about themselves. When writing a narrative essay, writers should try to involve the reader by making the story as vivid as possible.  Descriptive: A descriptive essay paints a picture with words. A writer might describe a person, place, object, or even memory of special significance. The descriptive essay strives to communicate a deeper meaning through the description. In a descriptive essay, the writer should show through the use of colorful words and sensory details.

5. Classification of Essay- Writing(cont’d)  Expository: In an expository essay, the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and examples. Expository writing encompasses a wide range of essay variations, such as the comparison and contrast essay, the cause and effect essay, and the “how to” or process essay.  Reflective: A reflective essay consists of reflections or thoughts on some topic, which is generally of an abstract nature; for example; (a) habits, qualities, (b) social, political and domestic topics (c) philosophical subjects, (d) religious and theological topics.

6. Classification of Essay- Writing(cont’d)  Imaginative :Essays on subjects such as the feelings and experiences of the sailor wrecked on a desert island may be called imaginative Essays. In such the writer is called to place himself in imagination in a position of which he has had no actual experience. Such subjects as “If I were a king,” or “The autobiography of a horse,” would call for imaginative essays.

7. Overview of Essay-Writing

8. How to write an effective essay?  Every essay has a beginning, a middle and an end. In a 5 paragraph essay, the first paragraph is called the introduction. The next three paragraphs consist of the body of the essay. The fifth and final paragraph is the conclusion.

9. Parts of an Essay  Introduction: The introduction paragraph is the first paragraph of your essay. Here you show the main idea of your essay. It must be interesting to your reader and must say why your topic is important. First of all, write the thesis. The main idea of the essay is stated in a single sentence called the thesis statement. Provide some background information about your topic. You can use interesting facts that you will use later in the essay.  The introduction usually has three parts:  The hook (or dramatic opener) consists of several sentences that pull the reader into the essay.  The transitional sentence connects the hook to the thesis statement.  The thesis statement is one or two sentences that states the idea of the essay.

10. Parts of an Essay(cont’d) Hooks (dramatic openers) are used to grab your reader’s attention at the beginning of a paragraph or in a report or essay. The hook is often a short sentence and is placed before the topic sentence.  Transitional sentence Transition sentences are vital devices for essays, papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure.

11. Parts of an Essay(cont’d)  Thesis statement  A very basic thesis statement is one or two sentences at the end of the first paragraph that tells the reader the main idea of your essay.  A thesis statement should do these three things: It should clearly express what the essay is about. It should make a discussible point. It should indicate the structure of the essay.

12. Parts of an Essay(cont’d)  Body of the Essay (Supporting Paragraphs):They make the body of your work. They develop the main idea of your essay. To connect your supporting paragraphs, you should use special transition words. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs.  Each paragraph in the body of the essay contains the following sentences: TOPIC SENTENCE: This sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about. DETAIL SENTENCE: Your paragraph can have many detail sentences. The detail sentence tells your reader a little more about your topic. Each detail sentence must include an EXAMPLE. CONCLUDING/TRANSITIONAL SENTENCE: This sentence wraps up what you have already told the readers and gets them ready for the next paragraph.

13. Parts of an Essay(cont’d)  Conclusion (The End):This part contains the conclusions and findings. Proves that the theme announced at the beginning of the essay is fully disclosed. Necessarily express your personal opinion about the work done.  The concluding paragraph typically has two parts: i. The summary statement is one or two sentences which restate the thesis in a fresh way to reinforce the essay’s main idea. ii. The clincher is a final thought which should create a lasting impression on the reader. It is also referred to as the closer, is your last opportunity to connect with the reader.

14. Revision  Revision is actually something a good writer does throughout the writing process. Revision does not mean “recopying” what you’ve already written. Revision means making changes to the content of the paper so that every word, sentence, and paragraph makes sense to the reader.  Three areas in particular to examine as you consider how to improve the content and style of your essay are as follows: o Clarity: Is the essay clearly and logically written? o Unity: Do all the paragraphs relate to the central idea? o Coherence: Do the ideas flow smoothly?

15. Proofreading  Proof reading is different from revision. Whereas revision focuses on improving the content of the essay, proofreading deals with recognizing and correcting errors or punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and grammar.  PROOF READING CHECKLIST  Have all fragments and run-on sentences been eliminated?  Does the essay use correct paragraphing and indentation?  Is there agreement between subjects and verbs?  Are pronoun references clear?  Has correct verb tense been used correctly and consistently?  Have commas, apostrophes, and semicolons been used correctly?  Have words been capitalized correctly?  Are there any sentences that could be combined to provide sentence variety?  Does the essay show interesting and accurate word choice?  Has a dictionary or spellchecker been used to correct spelling errors?

16. References     center/writing/essays/different-kinds-of-essays.html write-a-good-essay 


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