Essay about Sociology

Sociology as a branch of knowledge, has its own unique characteristics, it is different from other sciences in certain respects. An analysis of its internal logical characteristics helps one to understand what kind of science it is. The following are the main characteristics of sociology. 1. Sociology is an independent science: Sociology has now emerged into an independent science. It is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy or political philosophy or history. As an independent science, it has its own field of study, boundary and method. . Sociology is a social science and not a physical science: Sociology belongs to the family of social science and not to the family of physical science. As a social science, it concentrates its attention on man, his social behavior, social activities and social life. As a member of the family of social sciences like history, political science, economics, psychology, anthropology etc. The fact that sociology deals with the social universe distinguishes it from astronomy, physics, chemistry, zoology, mathematics and other physical sciences. . Sociology is a categorical and not a normative discipline: Sociology “confines itself to statements about what is not what should be or ought to be”. As science, sociology is necessarily silent about questions of value. It does not make any kind of value judgments. Its approach is neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which sociology ought to go. It makes no recommendations on matters of social policy or legislation or programme.
But it does not mean that sociological knowledge is useless and serves no purpose, it only means that sociology as a discipline cannot deal with problems of good and evil, right and wrong and moral or immoral. 4. Sociology is a pure science and not an applied science: A distinction is often made between pure sciences and applied sciences. The main aim of pure sciences is the acquisition of knowledge and it is not bothered whether the acquired knowledge is useful or can be put to use. On the other hand, the aim of applied science is to apply the acquired knowledge into life and to put it to use.
Each pure science may have its own applied field. For example, physics is a pure science and engineering is its applied field. Similarly, the pure sciences such as economics, political science, history etc. have their applied fields like business, politics, and journalism respectively. Sociology as a pure science has its applied fields such as administration, diplomacy, social work, etc. Each pure science may have more than one application. Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of sociology is the acquisition of knowledge about human society, not the utilization of that knowledge.

Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repeated. But the knowledge acquired by a sociologist is of great help to the administrator, the legislator, the diplomat, the teacher, the foreman, the supervisor, the social worker and the citizen. But sociologists themselves do not apply the knowledge of life and use as a matter of their duty and profession. 5. Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science: This does not mean that sociology is an art and not a science.
Nor does it mean, it is un-necessarily complicated and unduly difficult. It only means that sociology is not interested in concrete manifestations of human events. It is more concerned with the form of human events and their patterns. For example, sociology is not concerned with particular wars and revolutions but with war and. revolution in general, as social phenomena as type’s social conflict. Similarly, sociology does not confine itself to the study of this society or that particular society or social organization, or marriage or religion, or group and so on.
In this simple sense sociology is an abstract and not a concrete science. 6. Sociology is a generalizing and not a particularizing or individualizing science: Sociology tries to find out the general laws or principles about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies. It does not study each and every event that takes place in society. It is not possible also. It tries to make generalizations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a sociologist makes generalizations about the nature of secondary groups.
He may conclude that secondary groups are comparatively bigger in size, less stable, not necessarily spatially, limited, more specialized, and so on. This, he does not by examining all the secondary groups but by observing and studying a few. 7. Sociology is a general science and not a special science: The area of inquiry of sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human interaction and human life in general. Other social sciences like political science, history, economics etc. , also study man and human intention on certain aspects of human interaction and activities and specialize themselves, in these fields.
Accordingly, economics specializes itself in the study of economic activities. Political science concentrates on political activities and so on. Sociology, of course, does not investigate economic, religious, political, legal, and moral or any other special kinds of phenomena in relation to human life and activities as such. It only studies human activities in a general way. This does not, however, mean that sociology is the basic social science nor does it simply is the general social science. Anthropology and social psychology often claim themselves to be general social sciences. . Finally, Sociology is both a rational and an empirical science: There are two broad ways of approach to scientific knowledge. One known as empiricism is the approach that emphasizes experience and the facts that result from observation and experimentation. The other known as rationalism, reason and the theories that result from logical inference. The empiricist collects facts, the rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. Theories and facts are required in the construction of knowledge. In sociological inquiry, both are significant.
A theory unsubstantiated by hard facts is nothing more than an opinion. Pacts, by themselves, in their isolated character, are meaningless and useless. As Immanuel Hants said, “theories without facts are empty and facts without theories are blind”. All modern sciences, therefore, avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources. Sociology is not an exception. It is clear from the above that sociology is an independent, a social, a categorical, a pure, an abstract, a generalizing both a rational and empirical social science. mportance Of Sociology Sociology makes a scientific study of society: Prior to the emergence of sociology the study of society was carried on in an unscientific manner and society had never been the central concern of any science. It is through the study of sociology that the truly scientific study of the society has been possible. Sociology because of its bearing upon many of the problems of the present world has assumed such a great importance that it is considered to be the best approach to all the social sciences.
Sociology studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals: It is through sociology that scientific study of the great social institutions and the relation of the individual to each is being made. The home and family ,the school and educaton,the church and religion, the state and government ,industry and work ,the community and association, these are institutions through which society functions. Sociology studies these institutions and their role in the development of the individual and suggests suitable measures for restrengthening them with a view to enable them to serve the individual better.
Study of sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society: Society is a complex phenomenon with a multitude of intricacies. It is impossible to understand and solve its numerous problems without support of sociology. It is rightly said that we cannot understand and mend society without any knowledge of its mechanism and construction. Without the investigation carried out by sociology no real effective social planning would be possible. It helps us to determine the most efficient means for reaching the goals agreed upon. A certain amount of knowledge about society is necessary before any social policies can be carried out.
Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems: The present world is suffering from many problems which can be solved through scientific study of the society. It is the task of sociology to study the social problems through the methods of scientific research and to find out solution to them. The scientific study of human affairs will ultimately provide the body of knowledge and principles that will enable us to control the conditions of social life and improve them. Sociology has drawn our attention to the intrinsic worth and dignity of man: Sociology has been instrumental in changing our attitude towards human beings.
In a specialized society we are all limited as to the amount of the whole organization and culture that we can experience directly. We can hardly know the people of other areas intimately. In order to have insight into and appreciation of the motives by which others live and the conditions under which they exist a knowledge of sociology is essential. Sociology has changed our outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc:It is through the study of sociology that our whole outlook on various aspects of crime has change. The criminals are now treated as human beings suffering from mental deficiencies and fforts are accordingly made to rehabilitate them as useful members of the society. Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture: Human culture has been made richer by the contribution of sociology. The social phenomenon is now understood in the light of scientific knowledge and enquiry. According to Lowie most of us harbor the comfortable delusion that our way of doing things is the only sensible if not only possible one. Sociology has given us training to have rational approach to questions concerning oneself, one’s religion,customs,morals and institutions.
It has further taught us to be objective, critical and dispassionate. It enables man to have better understanding both of himself and of others. By comparative study of societies and groups other than his existence ,his life becomes richer and fuller than it would otherwise be. Sociology also impresses upon us the necessity of overcoming narrow personal prejudices, ambitions and class hatred. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems: The progress made by physical sciences has brought the nations of the world nearer to each other.
But in the social field the world has been left behind by the revolutionary progress of the science. The world is divided politically giving rise to stress and conflict. Men have failed to bring in peace. Sociology can help us in understanding the underlying causes and tensions. The value of sociology lies in the fact that it keeps us update on modern situations: It contributes to making good citizens and finding solutions to the community problems. It adds to the knowledge of the society. It helps the individual find his relation to society.
The study of social phenomena and of the ways and means of promoting what Giddens calls social adequacy is one of the most urgent needs of the modern society. Sociology has a strong appeal to all types of mind through its direct bearing upon many of the initial problems of the present world. What is Sociology? Sociology is defined as the scientific study of society and human behavior. Sociology is a part of social sciences. The study of sociology aims at analyzing the patterns of human behavior, deriving their causes and speculating the future of the behavioral patterns in society.
Importance of Sociology The various disciplines of sociology include the study of social interaction between people. The areas covered by sociology include the analysis of social contacts between members of a society as also the interactions between different people around the world. Sociology attempts to study how and why people are organized as a society. It analyzes the structure of society and studies the factors that contribute to the creation of social groups. Sociology includes the study of the behavioral patterns, interactions and relationships among the individuals of society.
This field tries to examine the organizational structure of society and the influence it has on the social, political and religious ideas of the members. It encompasses the study of the organization of families and businesses. It attempts to analyze the creation and management of social groups as well as the factors, which lead to their breakdown. The disciplines of sociology are concerned with the effects of social behavior on the formation of social traits. It also includes the ethical and moral values of society. Sociology is regarded as a branch of social sciences.
It deals with the analysis of social behavior that shapes society and thus, is a field that covers a very broad knowledge base. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. buzzle. com/articles/importance-of-sociology. html importance of studying sociology Of the various social sciences, sociology seems to be the youngest. It is gradually developing. Still it has remarkable progress. Its uses are recognized widely today. In modern times, there is a growing realization of the importance of the scientific study of social phenomena and the means of promoting what Prof.
Giddings calls human adequacy (human welfare). The study of sociology has a great value especially in modern complex society. Some of the uses of sociology are as follows. 1. Sociology studies society in a scientific way. Before the emergence of sociology, there was no systematic and scientific attempt to study human society with all its complexities. Sociology has made it possible to study society in a scientific manner. This scientific knowledge about human society is needed in order to achieve progress in various fields. 2. Sociology throws more light on the social nature of man.
Sociology evolves deep into the social nature of man. It tells us why man is a social animal, why he lives in groups, communities and societies. It examines the relationship between individual and society, the impact of society on man and other matters. 3. Sociology improves our understanding of society and increases the power of social action, capabilities, talents and limitations. It enables him to adjust himself to the environment. Knowledge of society, social groups, social institutions, associations, their functions etc. helps us to lead an effective social life. . The study of sociology helps us to know not only our society and man but also others, their motives, aspirations, status, occupations, traditions, customs, institutions, cultures etc. In a huge industrialized society, our experience is comparatively limited. We can hardly have a comprehensive knowledge of our society and rarely have an idea regarding other societies. But we must have some insight into an appreciation of the motives by which others live and the conditions under which they exist. Such an insight we derive from the study of sociology. 5.
The contribution of sociology is not less significant in enriching culture. Sociology has given training to us to have rational approach to questions concerning ourselves, our religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies etc. It has made us to become more objective, rational, critical and dispassionate. The study of societies has made people to become more broad-minded. It has impressed upon its students to overcome there prejudices,-misconceptions, egoistic ambitions, and class and religious, hatreds. It has made our life richer, fuller and meaningful. 6.
Another aspect of the practical side of sociology is the study of great social institutions and the relation’s of individuals of each one of them. The home and family, the school and education, the state and government, industry and work, religion and morality, marriage and family, law and legislation, property and government etc. are some of the main institutions, through which our society functions. More than that, they condition our life in countless ways. Knowledge of sociology may help to strengthen them to serve man better. 7. Sociology is useful as a teaching subject too.
Sociology is a profession in which technical competence brings its own rewards. Sociologists, especially those trained in research procedures, are in increasing demand in business, Government, industry, city planning, race relations, social work, social welfare, supervision, advertising, communications, administration, and many other areas of community life. A few years ago, sociologists could only teach sociology in schools and colleges. But sociology has now become practical enough to be practiced outside of academic halls, areas of application of sociology in schools and colleges.
Careers apart from teaching are now possible in sociology, which are coming more international levels. 8. The need for the study of sociology is greater especially in underdeveloped countries. Sociologists have now drawn the attention of economists regarding the social factors that have contributed to the economic backwardness of a few countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological knowledge in analyzing the economic affairs of country. 9. The study of society is of paramount importance in solving social problems.
The present world is best with several social problems of great magnitude like poverty, beggary, unemployment, prostitution, over population, family disorganization, community disorganization, racial problems, crime, juvenile delinquency, gambling alcoholism, youth unrest, untouchability etc. A careful analysis of these problems is necessary in order to solve them. Sociology provides such an analysis. 10. Sociological knowledge is necessary for understanding and planning of society. Social planning has been made easier by sociology.
Sociology is often considered a vehicle of social reform and social reorganization. It plays an important role in the reconstruction of society. 11. Study of society has helped several governments to promote the welfare of the tribal people. Not only the civilized-societies, but even the tribal societies are faced with several socio-economic and anthropologists regarding tribal societies and problems have helped many governments in undertaking various social welfare measures to promote the welfare of the tribal people. Efforts are now being made to treat the tribals on par with the rest of the civilized people. 2. Sociology has drawn our attention to the intrinsic worth and dignity of man. Sociology has been greatly responsible in changing our attitudes towards fellow human beings. It has helped people to become catholic in outlook and broad-minded in spirit. It has made people to become too lenient and patient towards others. It has minimized the mental distance and reduced the gap between different peoples and communities. 13. Sociology is of great practical help in the sense; it keeps us up-to date on modern social situations and developments.
Sociology makes us to become more alert towards the changes and developments that take place around us. As a result, we come to know about our changed roles and expectations and responsibilities. What is the relation between sociology and other sciences? Answer sociology deals with society[people];how people interact,their culture,norms,values just like other social sciences like psychology,economics,psychology which also deal with people and how they behave,their mental processes. there is also a relationship between sociology and economics which is another social science. conomics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how the goods are distributed to members of the society. the answer sciences related to sociology are social sciences. social science are sciences which deal with people and have the following characteristics;observable,measurable,practical,factual. psychology and sociology link on that they al deal with the behavior of people,psychology deals with the behavior of people and their mental process just like sociology which also seek to understand how people’s behavior affect society. nthropology and sociology also deal with society but the only difference is that social anthropology mainly considers small states and their culture but their area of studies is basically the same. sociology and political science are also related in the sense that they both concern the welfare of people in a society. political science basically deals with the distribution of power and the exercise of power,democracy,dictatorship,communism,how people vote etc. history is another social science which is related to sociology. istory primarily deals with past events and how they affected society eg how the colonization of Africa underdeveloped Africa. sociology on the other end will be concerned with how people interacted, how culture was affected etc during the colonization and the present. geography can also be a social science which deals with society just like sociology. the population studies,demography, health and environment are all geographical studies which deal with society which are also inter-related to sociology as a field of study. answer no. 2
Sociology and Psychology are overlapping in that social influences effect the psychological development of individuals. Sociology is obvious in history in that the social interactions of individuals have effected history, and then of course there is the history of Sociology itself. The study of economics in sociology is stratification, which is the study of how we are a part of a certain economic level in society and how we got there and how it effects us. Finally, political science has been studied by many Sociologists for such issues as slavery, women in politics, etc.
Sociology Related with Other Sciences Posted by Prem Shresh , Saturday, March 6, 2010 7:33 PM Sociology is the wider and broader in scope and it was related or interlinked with many others social sciences. Sociology is the science of the society and in society many kinds of things were happens to fulfilled the whole society and there is co-operation between sciences like as follows:- Political Science : Political science and sociology are very closely related. Political science deals with the political activities of man. It studies social groups organised under the sovereignty of the state. Historically, sociology has its main root in politics and philosophy of history “- Morries Ginsberg. ” Political is embedded in the social that if political science remains distinct from sociology, it will be because of the breadth of the field calls for the specialist, not because there are any well-defined boundaries marking it off from sociology”- Garner. Sociology is the science of state and government. Sociology is the young science and political science is older science. History Science : Sociology and history are very much interrelated.
Like political science, sociology is becoming one of the most genuine fruits of history to which it is intimately connected. History is the reconstruction of man’s past. It is the story of the experience of man kind and the record of the human past. History is the microscope of the past, the horoscope of the present and the telescope of the future. Sociology is the science of society, on the other hand is intrested in the present. It tries to analyse human interactions and interrelations with all their complexity and diversity.
It also studies the historical development of societies. History with its record of various social events of the past offers data facts to sociologists. History is a storehouse of records, a treasury of knowledge. Historians also uses sociology. ‘History is past sociology’, and ‘Sociology is present History’-G. E. Howard. Anthropology : The relation between sociology and anthropology is widely recognized today. Anthropology is ” concerned not with particular man but with man in groups, with races and peoples and their happenings and doings”.
According to Hoebel, ” Sociology and Social Anthropology are, in their broadest sense one and the same”. Sociology has borrowed many concepts log, cultural patterns, cultural configuration, etc. , from socio-cultural anthropology. Anthropology as a discipline is so closely related to sociology that the two are frequently indistinguishable. Sociologists in their studies Psychology : Sociology and psychology are contributory sciences. Psychology has been defined as the study of human behaviour. In the words of Thouless, ” Psychology is the positive science of human experience and behaviour “.
As Krech and Crutchfield define, ” Social Psychology is the science of the behaviour of the individual in society “. Social psychology helps us a great deal in facing several social problems. Murphy ” Social psychology is the study of the way in which the individual becomes members of and functions in a social groups “. Sociology analyses social processes but social psychology analysis mental processes of man. Economics : Sociology and economics as social sciences have close relations. According to Thomas, ” Economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology “.
Dr. Alfred Marshall defines economics as ” On the one side the study of wealth and on the other and more important side a part of the study of man “. Sociologists have contributed to the study of different aspects of economic organization. Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships but economics deals with only those social relationships which are economic. Engineer Science Web Science Medical Science Ayurveda’s Science Forest Science Law Science Human Science There are three emphasis areas in the Sociology major including: Criminology emphasis
General Sociology emphasis Inequalities and Globalization emphasis CAREERS IN SOCIOLOGY First, a Sociology BA provides you with a useful background for some specific jobs. For example, employers in fields such as criminal justice, human services, or personnel and industrial relations often employ sociology majors in a variety of capacities in their organizations. Students who pursue graduate training in sociology and related fields can also expect to find employment in fields such as teaching, research, planning, social work, and public policy.
If you are interested in a career in one of these fields, there are several things you can do to make yourself more attractive to a prospective employer. You may want to choose your elective courses in sociology (as well as your general electives) with your career goals in mind. If you are planning a career in human services, for example, you should choose sociology courses that deal with the sorts of social problems with which human services agencies deal, such as poverty, family problems, aging, or health care problems.
It would also be a good idea to select electives in other departments that are related to your area of interest (perhaps a course in abnormal psychology or human development or a political science course in public policy). You also may want to add a minor (or even a second major) in a related field or to consider an internship or graduate training in your area of interest (see below). Your advisor can be a valuable resource in helping you to decide which courses are best suited to your career goals. If you have definite ideas about what you would like to do, be sure to discuss them with your advisor as soon as you can.
Second, like most liberal arts majors, a BA in sociology gives a general background for a broad range of jobs. Most businesses, for example, hire prospective managers as trainees. They expect the applicant to possess good analytical, writing, and oral skills and to be educable; they do not usually assume a major in a particular subject. Many employers prefer liberal arts majors both because they have been well-trained in “the basics” and because their broad education makes them flexible and adaptable to changing conditions.
Sociology majors who develop their basic skills, are well- placed to apply for a wide range of jobs that are not directly related to the subject matter of sociology itself and will find themselves well-prepared to adapt to changing opportunities. Courses in writing, math, computer sciences, and foreign language may provide you with the background for a number of jobs. Two final points may help you keep your career prospects in proper perspective. First, anyone starting out on a career must expect to start out at the bottom (or near it). Most people do not move immediately from a BA program to their “dream job. Very often, finding that job takes many years and may require a laborious process of waiting, creating opportunities for oneself, and taking advantage of those that present themselves. In other words, the fact that a sociology BA does not lead automatically and quickly to an ideal job is absolutely normal. Second, while career preparation is an important part of undergraduate education, it is not its only purpose. In addition to teaching skills that may prove useful later on, a sociology BA also provides valuable insights on topics not directly related to careers — politics, religion, family problems, gender, the economy and many others.
In constructing your undergraduate program, you should try to balance career-oriented courses with courses on matters of general interest. Sociology Professor or Researcher Requires M. A. or Ph. D. in sociology Sociologists can teach at the community level with a master’s degree or at the college level with a Ph. D. Some sociologists chose to do research with government or nonprofit agencies, such as the Department of Health and Human Services or the Urban Institute. Recommended courses: Independent research project under faculty supervision, either Directed Study {Socl 399) or Senior Thesis (Socl 391) * An extra course in research methods, either Field Research Methods (Socl 361) or Statistical Software (CSCI 216) * One or more 300-level Socl electives in addition to the required two 300-level courses Market Research or Polling Requires a B. A. or M. A. Market research and public opinion polling are simply applications of the survey research techniques you learn in your research class. Recommended courses: * Statistical Software (CSCI 216) A directed study (Socl 399) conducting a survey or analyzing data. * An internship in the Survey Research Center of the School of Business or a market research firm. * Electives in Management Science or Political Science, selected with the help of your advisor Social Work Requires MSW to advance in the field; a B. A. or B. S. to enter There are many different kinds of social work: providing services in group settings (as a counselor), dealing with individual clients (as a therapist), overseeing recipients of public services (as a caseworker), or supervising a social service agency (as a manager).
Social workers work in schools, hospitals, group homes, government offices, and private agencies. Recommended courses: * An internship with a social service agency. * Sociology electives in Social Problems and Public Policy (Socl 102), Sociology of the Family (Socl 210), Inequality, Class, and Poverty (Socl 220), Race and Ethnicity (Socl 230), Aging and Society (Socl 352) Additional possibilities: * Psychology minor including Introduction to Community Psychology (PSYC 262), Humanistic     Psychology (PSYC 311), or Abnormal Psychology (PSYC 360). Human Development minor, concentrating on courses about children, adolescents, the elderly, or     whatever population with which you want to work. Teaching in Public School Requires certification in education (elementary or secondary), and M. A. or M. S. to become permanently certified. In recent years, several sociology majors have become teachers, especially in urban schools. They report that their sociology background is very useful in the classroom. Recommended courses: * Teaching certification program (pre-K – 6), including one semester of student teaching     or Teaching certification program (7 -12) in social studies, including one semester of student teaching Lobbying / Social Advocacy / Political Staff Requires initiative and creativity more than specific degrees. Some sociology majors have gone to work for lobbying, social advocacy, or nonprofit groups dealing with issues such as domestic violence, women’s rights, prisoners’ rights, child advocacy, the environment, racial and religious discrimination, disabilities, health care reform, and family planning. A related career option is to work in the office of an elected official.
The curriculum appropriate for these jobs will vary according to the type of issue or organization with which you would like to work. By reading the College Bulletin carefully and talking to faculty, other students, and the Career Services staff, you can make up your own list of courses relevant to your interests. Don’t overlook Directed Studies courses to study issues that are not covered by existing courses! Recommended courses: * One (or even two) internships with agencies in your area of interest * An interdisciplinary minor (if one exists) in your area of interest (e. . , Women’s Studies,     Environmental Studies) OR * Electives in sociology and other departments that relate to your area of interest [e. g. , for family     planning advocacy, Sociology of the Family (Socl 210), Human Fertility (BIOL 107), Political     Parties and Interest Groups (PLSC 211), Psychology of Women (PSYC 308), etc. ] The Law To be an attorney requires a J. D. ; to be a paralegal usually requires a paralegal certificate (approximately 6 months beyond the B. A. ) Preparation for law school does not require any particular major.
Recommended courses: * A minor in Legal Studies (including legal internship) * Writing (Engl 100, 200) and Logic (Phil 111) Additional recommendation: A preparatory course to prepare for the LSAT exam, particularly if you have difficulty with standardized exams. 1. Teaching * Sociology majors can obtain a teaching certificate and begin a career as an elementary or secondary-school teacher. Potential subject areas include history, social science and political science. Individuals who earn advanced degrees can teach at the college or university level.
Journalism * A sociologist studies historical and societal trends, which is a beneficial background for a career in journalism. Options include working for newspapers and magazines to help them determine the kinds of stories that may appeal to their readers. Sociologists with writing skills can pursue a career as a journalist. * Sponsored Links * ASCE Online Library Free search 800,000 pages All areas of civil engineering www. ascelibrary. org Public Relations and Marketing * Sociologists can also find work in public relations and marketing.
Their knowledge of how large groups of people typically respond can help companies promote new products or services. They may be able to anticipate potential problems and help to craft responses to the public when difficult situations arise. Social Work * Social workers attempt to help individuals improve their lives by providing counseling and guidance. They often work for government agencies at the state, federal or local level. Social workers and counselors typically are required to have an advanced degree. Politics * Politicians can make use of sociologists in a variety of ways.
Sociologists can help during election campaigns by identifying voting trends in specific neighborhoods. They can also help determine how citizens might react to a proposed piece of legislation. Sponsored Links pc to phone call – Free Trial Numbers In 100+ countries. Instantly Expand Your Global Reach! TollFreeForwarding. com/Free-Call Study Tourism/Hospitality Top Ranked Bachelor in Hospitality Mangement and Hotel Management dual-mba. com/Study_in_Switzerland World Trade Organization The MA program Saint Petersburg State University worldec. ru/eng. html Research Sociology
Plato (428/7 – 348/7 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC): Plato was the first western philosopher who attempted a systematic study of society. Plato in Republic and Aristotle in Politics dealt systematically with many social institutions. They saw State and Society as synonymous and took the individual for granted. Plato could be said to be the first exponent of the organic theory in society and Aristotle subscribed to it too. Thus they, both, accepted society as a Unified System structured around Division of Labour and Social Inequality. They saw Society in holistic terms and gave ‘State’ the dominant role.
Aristotle thought the origin of societies lay in human nature and its structure consisted of social groups in function. Their views presented the definition of society in terms of objective laws and historical processes. Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406): He produced a corpus of work that had many ideas in common with contemporary Sociology. His lectures on Society and Sociology stressed the importance of linking sociological thought and historical observation. He was, indeed, committed to the scientific study of society, empirical research and the search for causes of social phenomena.
He gave special attention to various social institutions (political, economic, etc. ) and their inter-relationships. He was also interested in comparing primitive and modern societies. A basic principle of soiciology, he thought, was solidarity which united people together, and solidarity is the result of a common goal, he believed. Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679): His conception of man was non-sociological – ‘the life of man is solitary, poor, rusty, brutish and short’, while ‘the condition of man is a condition of war against everyone. Thus, he claimed that men were basically in conflict with each other guided by their greatest motivation – lust for power. Consequently, order in society is possible with the existence of a strong government, the artificial leviathan – the state – which is the product of human reason and social contract. ‘The Leviathan’ (1651) is his major work. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). He is criticised for the basic contradictions in his work He claims that society itself is founded on irresolvable contradictions and that, therefore, paradox ma; be the most appropriate medium in which to understand the essence of Social Life.
His argument Social Contract (1762) is that one can only conceive of a legitimate state where one can only conceive of a legitimate state where the members are wholeheartedly devoted to the good of the community and are able to identify their interests with the whole society. In Emile (1762), his treatise on education, he states the basic insight of his social theory – the impossibility of reconciling the contradiction between nature and society.
The basics of The Social Contract is that no polity can be considered legitimate except insofar as its laws issue from the will of its members, that the touchstones of politics based on right are law, democratic will and popular sovereignty. Society, he thought, is inevitably corrupting. His solution to this problem lay in substituting the power of law for the power of men, making men independent of one another by making them all equally dependent on the laws of the republic. John Locke (1632-1704):
His essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) made a major contribution to psychology and philosophical psychology. It argued that all ideas depend on experience and attempts to critically examine understanding of causality, probability, and qualities of matter, ideas, words, God and the universe. His treatises on Government stress virtual, mutual contract as the origin of the state with the possibility of sovereign people to alter the terms of social contract to meet changing conditions the methodology for acquiring knowledge puts forth by Locke stressed on careful observation.
He saw education as a socialisation process, occurring within the family, with a tutor. His Two Treatises on Government (1690) deals with the family, duties parents have towards their children and to each other and the rights and duties of citizens in a political society. He stressed both mental and physical well-being as important for growth of knowledge. Perceiving the difference between the study of nature and history, Vico pointed out that understanding the subjective human motives, values and originations makes it possible to understand history.
These ideas are reflected in the works of Dilthey and Weber. Thus, Vico thought history to be the result of human action. His views were expressed with reference to particular societies and races in which he argued that social institutions such as religion, marriage and sepulture were common to mankind. The New Science, which attempted a philosophy of history were his major works. Montesquieu (1689-1755): He is rightly regarded as the founder of Modern Sociology. He gave a holistic definition of society. Society is an interconnected and self-contained integrated whole, he said.
Rational and naturalistic factors influence human behaviour and institutions, the genesis of social institutions should be traced to complex social forces and the legal codes and customs should be discussed with reference to the social structure – these were some of the conclusions he arrived at with the help of comparative analysis. He expounded the view that though apparently society may seem to be chaotic it follows definite patterns of regularities of behaviour, institutions and laws beneath the surface.
The initiation of Sociology of Law can be traced to Montesquieu who discussed law partly in terms of ‘Natural Law’. He also described and compared the laws of different societies and related the differences to the diverse geographical and social conditions of these societies. “His thoughts on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decadence” (1734) argues that rise and fall of empires is due to general causes of moral and physical nature rather than blind chance; Spirit of Law (1748), his greatest work, deals with law in general and governmental forms. Saint Simon (1760-1825):
This early French Utopian sociologist viewed society as an organic whole. Though he did not develop a distinctive Sociology he can be credited with influencing two major developments in sociology-Comtean Positivism and Marxian Socialism. His ideas on class and property gave rise to a different style of socialism while his distinction between Critical and Organic periods of history, and his advocacy of a new moral doctrine to bind men together in the post-revolutionary industrial society proved conducive to Comte’s concern with the re- establishment of ‘social order’.
However, this latter conservative stand-point of Saint-Simon which is closer to Comtean positivism is in contradiction with his concept of ‘industrial society’ and Marxism. Like many other 19th century thinkers, Sociology, he believed, would provide the theoretical foundation for a comprehensive applied science. It could establish universal laws of social behaviour by reference to which all disputes about social policy can be solved.
Being a French aristocrat and founder of socialism in France, he held the view that progress depends on the advancement of science, the protection of the industrial class and the maintenance of industrial organisation. ‘Social Physics’ and ‘Social Physiology’; ‘Industrial Society’ were his major concepts. His Plan of the Scientific Works Necessary for the Reorganisation of Society (1822) was written in collaboration with Comte and gives a clear formulation of the purpose of sociology and states the law of three stages of social development. Other Social Thinkers: Auguste Comte (1798-1857). Comte wanted to reorganize society on new lines.
He felt that the momentous changes taking place in Europe, especially France, will have to be accompanied by new principles. These new principles will have to integrate and balance the different aspects of human life. Thus, for him, the discoveries of social laws which explain these principles of change in society were very important. Comte talked about Sociology as a Science of Society but also believed that it must be used for reorganising society. Comte wanted to develop a naturalistic science of society. This science would be able to explain the past development of mankind as well as, predict its future course.
In doing so, Comte attempted to discover the successive stages in which human race has evolved. In terms of the scope of study, Comte divided social life into two: 1. Static 2. Dynamic The idea of this division is borrowed from Biology which is in keeping with his notions of a hierarchy of sciences. The static sociology studies the conditions of the existence of society, while the dynamic sociology studies the continuous movement or laws of the succession of individual stages in society. One can also say that static studies the social order and dynamic studies the social change or progress in societies.
Comte was on the view that development of human mind passes through three stages in all the societies, which he termed as ‘the law of the three stages’. These are: 1. Theological stage – human mind at this level supposes that all phenomena are produced by the immediate action of supernatural beings 2. Metaphysical stage-human beings pursue meaning and explanation of the world in terms of ‘essences’, ‘ideas’; focuses, in other words, on a conception of some ultimate reality such as ‘God’. 3. Positive stage – human being seeks to establish laws which link facts and which govern social life. ho are the pioneers of sociology Here are some: Auguste comte Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber Pioneers of Sociology * Karl Marx He said that the working class will defeat the ownership class, and result in a utopia where government will wither away to nothing and the principle of economics will be based on “For each according to his needs, and from each according to his ability. ” His contribution to thinking in sociology is mainly in a perspective called “Conflict Theory” in which social organisation and change is based upon conflicts built into society.
Many people see this as having much resemblance to classical (Greek and Latin) myths about the Phoenix Bird (who flies too close to the sun and burns) and creation myths of Athapaskan people of the Great Plains of North America. It is ironical that he predicted revolution to take place in industrialized societies, but the only communist revolutions in history took place in large agrarian feudal societies (as Russia and China were). Dialectical materialism and conflict approach. * Auguste Comte He was the founder of French positivism.
Comte can also be given credit for inventing or coining the term sociology. Comte’s philosophy of positivism developed from historical studies of the human mind. This led to Comte’s views of the three stages of the history of sciences. In order as follows, the stages are: 1) Theological – nature has a will of its own. This stage is broken down into three stages of its own, including animism, polytheism, and monotheism. 2) Metaphysical state – though substituting ideas for a personal will. 3) Positive – a search for absolute knowledge. Herbert Spencer traced the development of human life/organ from its lowest recognizable form up to human beings. He further says that as mind controls entire body and organs, same way the society (through its rules), controls all organs /parts. Therefore society /collectivity has power to control . Pioneers of Sociology   * Karl Marx He said that the working class will defeat the ownership class, and result in a utopia where government will wither away to nothing and the principle of economics will be based on “For each according to his needs, and from each according to his ability. His contribution to thinking in sociology is mainly in a perspective called “Conflict Theory” in which social organisation and change is based upon conflicts built into society. Many people see this as having much resemblance to classical (Greek and Latin) myths about the Phoenix Bird (who flies too close to the sun and burns) and creation myths of Athapaskan people of the Great Plains of North America. It is ironical that he predicted revolution to take place in industrialized societies, but the only communist revolutions in history took place in large agrarian feudal societies (as Russia and China were).
Dialectical materialism and conflict approach. * Auguste Comte He was the founder of French positivism. Comte can also be given credit for inventing or coining the term sociology. Comte’s philosophy of positivism developed from historical studies of the human mind. This led to Comte’s views of the three stages of the history of sciences. In order as follows, the stages are: 1) Theological – nature has a will of its own. This stage is broken down into three stages of its own, including animism, polytheism, and monotheism. 2) Metaphysical state – though substituting ideas for a personal will. ) Positive – a search for absolute knowledge. * Herbert Spencer traced the development of human life/organ from its lowest recognizable form up to human beings. He further says that as mind controls entire body and organs, same way the society (through its rules), controls all organs /parts. Therefore society /collectivity has power to control . Pioneers of Sociology   * Karl Marx He said that the working class will defeat the ownership class, and result in a utopia where government will wither away to nothing and the principle of economics will be based on “For each according to his needs, and from ach according to his ability. ” His contribution to thinking in sociology is mainly in a perspective called “Conflict Theory” in which social organisation and change is based upon conflicts built into society. Many people see this as having much resemblance to classical (Greek and Latin) myths about the Phoenix Bird (who flies too close to the sun and burns) and creation myths of Athapaskan people of the Great Plains of North America.
It is ironical that he predicted revolution to take place in industrialized societies, but the only communist revolutions in history took place in large agrarian feudal societies (as Russia and China were). Dialectical materialism and conflict approach. * Auguste Comte He was the founder of French positivism. Comte can also be given credit for inventing or coining the term sociology. Comte’s philosophy of positivism developed from historical studies of the human mind. This led to Comte’s views of the three stages of the history of sciences.
In order as follows, the stages are: 1) Theological – nature has a will of its own. This stage is broken down into three stages of its own, including animism, polytheism, and monotheism. 2) Metaphysical state – though substituting ideas for a personal will. 3) Positive – a search for absolute knowledge. * Herbert Spencer traced the development of human life/organ from its lowest recognizable form up to human beings. He further says that as mind controls entire body and organs, same way the society (through its rules), controls all organs /parts. Therefore society /collectivity has power to control .

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