# Dracula Coursework

Introduction
Otley is a market town on the outskirts of Leeds having a population of 14124. Otley town council wants to patronage public transport service by improving bus services to market and improving the local environment by traffic reduction. We as a transport planner have been tasked to measure the effectiveness of the inclusion of bus lane on link 24-17 which is a two-lane carriageway serving all traffic, also to consider a change of bus layby to a bus stop. The bus service in on route from zone 105 to 109 with a frequency of one every 10 minutes. Data collected from Dracula after simulation for bus route which has 2 bus stops and one layby holds the base scenario for this report and also to which the proposed scheme is compared. Task coding for base scenario. Simulation of the Base Scenario For base scenario, the network is coded with 2 bus stop on link 24-17 and 15-9, and bus lay by on link 16-15, 5 iterations were done with random NSEED no which are shown. Data collected for this simulation in this report included average total journey time for cars and buses over the network for 5 days which was 90. 26 seconds with a standard deviation of 2. 26 for cars and 354. 68 seconds with a standard deviation of 7. 55 for buses. The total Journey time data was taken from <net>.
REB file Figure 1. Base scenario average journey time for 5 days 3 Task C 3. 1Simulation for proposed bus lane scheme. Simulation for the proposed bus lane on link 24-17 was carried with the same NSEED no as in the base scenario with respective days.  Average journey time with bus lane As the graph indicates the average total journey time for cars is 89. 62 and for the bus is 339. 48 sec, which has decreased in comparison with the base scenario. When the average journey times for the base scenario are compared with the proposed bus lane scheme as shown in figure 3, it was observed that although the journey time with the inclusion of bus lane has decreased the deviation from the mean is higher compared to the base scenario. As from figure 3, the maximum deviation for the bus lane scheme not much higher as in the case of base scenario but with a minimum deviation, there is a probability that journey time with bus lane scheme can reduce further. Journey times for base scenario and bus lane journey time In case of cars the change in average total journey time does not have a significant impact as the journey time in the base scenario changes form 90. 26 hours to 89. 26 hours and also the error bar in both cases is very less.

Average journey time for cars The average number of passengers in the bus lane scheme has decreased from 163 passengers to 158 and also the error bar in the bus lane scheme is high compared to the base scenario. The passenger delay and bus dwell time have rather decreased but the error bar in the respective cases for bus lane scheme is high compared to the base scenario. Although the journey time, the number of passengers, passenger delay and bus dwell time is decreasing in bus lane scheme compared to the base scenario the error bar are comparatively high, hence it is more appropriate to have a reliable system and inclusion of bus lane would not affect the overall current bus service of the Otley network significantly, but its inclusion can improve certain parts of the network which are significant in improving public transport service. Task D (comparison of the bus stop and bus lay by) Analysing the performance of lay by on link 17- 15 with no bus lane the average total journey time for cars almost remained the same and does not have any significant impact. But in case of the bus, the total journey time with layby was more when compared with the bus stop scenario, also the error bar in the bus top scenario was smaller that of a layby scenario, as shown in figure 5. comparison of average journey time for bus layby and bus stop scenario.
Comparing the average no of passengers, passenger delay time and bus dwell time the bus lay by scenario was better than the bus stop scenario as the number of passengers decreased in bus stop scenario with bigger error bar compared to the base scenario, passenger delay does not have a significant impact but bus dwell time was smaller than the base scenario but the value for error bar is just double in the bus stop scenario. Comparison of the bus stop and bus lay by scenario In case of Queuing delay bus lay bay have larger queuing delay than bus stop queuing delay, as shown in the figure. Comparison of queuing delay for bus layby and bus stop More Queuing delay in bus layby than that in bus stop case is because once the bus gets off the road to pick passengers, the bus has to face congestion because of other cars which are already in the route. Comparing the average speed for the bus in both the scenarios buses on link 16 -15 with bus stop have higher average speed than the case of a layby, as shown in figure 8.
Figure 8
A comparison of average speed for buses also creates congestion for another vehicle while they are boarding or deboarding the passengers. Performance flow on link 16 -15 for cars is shown in figure 9.
Figure 9.
A comparison of performed flow for cars Figures above shows that the performance flow for cars was better in case of a bus stop than that of a layby. Analyzing the simulation for both bus stop and bus lay by the average journey time for bus top was significantly smaller compared to bus lay by on link 16-15, other factors such as average speed, no of passengers, passenger delay time, and bus dwell time do not have a significant impact. Hence replacing bus layby with a bus stop would be beneficial and would encourage more usage of public transport service. Task E (Proposed Scheme) Improvement of public transport service can be done if passengers already have seasonal tickets, this will reduce the bus dwell time and would also decrease the passenger delay at the bus stop.
The proposal is given for a bus lane of length on link 24-17 with a bus stop on link 16 -15 and encouraging 50 percent of the passengers to have seasonal tickets. Frequency of the bus is kept the same as in the case of base scenario Improving infrastructure could be helpful in improving public transport service as on the network there are sharp turns which cause maneuvering difficulties and causes some of the time delay (e. g. turn from link 24-17 to 17-15) The average journey time for the proposed scheme is shown in figure 10. As shown in the above graph the average journey time has decreased considerably after the inclusion of seasonal ticket, bus lane, and bus stop on link 16 -15. Although the error bar for the proposed scheme is double the base scenario the maximum error of the proposed scheme is lesser than the minimum error for the base scenario. In terms of environment, the proposed scheme does not have a huge impact on the environment, as the co2, NOx, and hydrocarbon emission are nearly the same in both the cases, as shown. Pollutant emission in the base scenario and proposed scheme Comparing the queuing delay for both the scenarios, queuing delay for the bus in the proposed scheme was lesser as compared to that of the base scenario.
Figure 11.
Comparison of queuing delay for the proposed scheme and base scenario. With the inclusion of bus stop and bus lane, the average speed for busses increases forms 12. 23 km to 14. 95 km as shown in figure12 When comparing the average no of passengers, passenger delay at the bus stop and bus dwell time we see that the no of a passenger at the bus stop has increased and bus dwell time have decreased which is beneficial in the improvement of public transport services.  Conclusion In the proposed scheme for the Otley network in Dracula the inclusion of bus lane on link 24-17 and a bus stop on link 16-15 is beneficial. Also, 50 percent of passengers having a seasonal ticket is an advantage as it is reducing the bus dwell time and also the bus total journey time.
Reference

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Office for National Statistics. (2004).
http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/viewFullDataset.do;jsessionid=zqGzR8CX0hh2WhLzqnHLh6GKBsqNYD19kNYPFXyCkSQjL4BBM092!1701030348!1362936375650? instanceSelection=03070&productId
Dr. Ronghui Liu (2005). Dracula manual.

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