Dimensions Affecting Learning Acquisition of Cte Students in Sdssu-Lianga Campus
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION
The pattern of learning acquisition of a child happened in different instances.
His intelligence, attitudes, interest and desires underlie the educative (teaching-learning) process. The acquisition of knowledge, formation of habits, skills and his development of abilities and attitudes are conditioned so that learning becomes more meaningful. The student’s capacity to learn varies, thus students can be classified into fast, average and slow learners. Some are high, moderate or slow achievers. The above mentioned types of learners need different conditions in acquiring learning.
According to Gagne’s Condition of Learning, learning process is affected by two conditions, the internal and external conditions that both influenced the learning acquisition of a child (Lucas and Corpuz, 2007). Conditioning is a behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent or more predictable in a given environment as a result of reinforcement, with reinforcement typically being a stimulus or reward for a desired response (global. britannica. com) The dimensions that affect learning acquisition as determined by Kurt Lewin have inner and outer forces.
Inner forces includes intrinsic motivation, feeling and attitude while the outer forces includes peers/classmates, classroom climate, and teacher’s behavior. Those forces play a vital role on generating learning on the part of the students, because it will determine the factors that influence most of the students in gaining knowledge. Learning is viewed as an experiential process resulting in a relatively permanent change in behavior that cannot be explained by temporary states, maturation, or innate response tendencies (Lefroncois, 2007).
Learning is the most part in education. It is an indispensable design of every school wherein learning most occur and the one who is responsible for the process is the teacher. Learner agents are teachers; they conduct, guide and encourage pupils to learn. They can help motivate these pupils’ development and advancement in learning. Students in other hand would keep a stride to counterbalance the teacher’s role because learning is a-two way- process (Demasuay and Raza, 2013). The main goal of the teacher is to transfer learning.
He should promote positive transfer of learning in classroom, guided with methods and techniques in teaching learning process. Transfer can be defined as a process of extending knowledge acquired in one context to other context. (Byrnes, 2001). It is the most complex part of the teaching learning process because there are varied types of learning in a single classroom that needs different attention and approaches just to acquire knowledge. Thus, it is a role of a teacher on how he will make adjustments to make the learning process more meaningful. The teacher plays a vital role in the transfer of learning.
It is said that the aim of teaching is to promote and produced desirable changes in behavior which will carry over into new situations. If the teacher lacks knowledge, how could he facilitate learning? The teacher serves as foundation of learning; therefore, it is significant for him to know the character of techniques play in implementing and refining principles for effective deliberation of knowledge to his learners. The teacher may know many things and be ready to teach his pupils, but he will have little success on his profession unless he has knowledge of the mind of his pupils and knows what goes on there.
Through this study, the factors that affect learning acquisition of CTE students will be measured, and those measurements will serve as the baseline information for the faculty in the College of Teacher Education program on what teaching approaches suited to the varied learners in each program of study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purpose of the study is to find out the dimensions affecting learning acquisition of CTE students in SDSSU-Lianga Campus. The study aimed to answer the following problems:
What is the profile of CTE students of SDSSU-Lianga Campus when grouped according to:
Program of Study
SDSSU-Lianga Campus when grouped according to question no. 1?
There is no significant difference on the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students in SDSSU-Lianga Campus when grouped according to age, sex, civil status, and program of study.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
This study is anchored on the following theories.
Theory of Conditioning
This theory states that the process of learning consist of the acquisition of the new ways of reacting to stimuli developed through attaching new stimuli to established modes of behavior. .
This is based on the experiment conducted by Ivan Pavlov a Russian psychologist on the reaction of the dog, who postulated that conditioning consists of eliciting a response by means of a previously neutral or inadequate stimulus. Principles under Classical Conditioning
Adhesive Principle – a response it attached to every stimulus. For every stimulus there is always a response.
Excitation – also known as the law of acquisition. It occurs when a previously neutral stimulus gains the ability of eliciting the response. .
Extinction – also known as unlearning and occurs when the conditioned response is no longer elicited by the conditioned stimulus because the conditioned stimulus is frequently presented without the paired stimulus.
Stimulus generalization – This happens when the Conditioned response is also elicited by other stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery – This happens when a conditioned response which does not appear for some time but re-occurs without need of further conditioning.
Operant Conditioning – Theory based on the experiment conducted by Burrhus Frederick Skinner upon a hungry rat. He believed that since an organism tends in the future to do what it was doing at the time of reinforcement, one can train that organism either by presenting him a reward or punishment as a consequence of his actions. Feedback Principle – states that an organism responses maybe reinforced by presentation or removal in other words, rewards and punishments.
Vector and topological Theory Basically, this is derived from the terms vector which means a quantity that has magnitude and direction and topology which is concerned with properties of geometric configuration which are unaltered by elastic deformations. As a Learning theory, it was advanced by Kurt Lewin and states that an individual’s exist on a field of forces within his environment that move, change and give him a degree of stability and substance or define his behavior. The behavior of an individual is a result of forces operating simultaneously within his environment and life space.
The focus of the study is to determine the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students in SDSSU-Lianga Campus. The variables that will be used on this study are independent, moderator and dependent variables. The schematic diagram of this study is presented in figure
Dependent Variable Academic Achievement And Effective Instruction Independent Variable Dimensions affecting Learning Acquisition Inner Forces
Attitudes Outer Forces
Teacher’s Behavior Moderator Variable
CTE STUDENTS PROFILE
Program of study Fig. 1. 1. Paradigm of Independent, Dependent, and Moderator Variables on the Dimensions that affects learning acquisition of CTE students. Shown in figure 1 is the schematic diagram of the study. It is composed of the first box contains the independent variables of which it comprises the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students. As determined by Kurt Lewin, Learning acquisition of the students has inner and outer forces.
Inner forces include intrinsic motivation/self-motivation, feelings and attitudes while the outer forces comprise the peers/classmates, classroom climate and teacher’s behavior. The above stated dimensions affects the learning the acquisition of a child, each forces trigger the child’s determination in acquiring knowledge. Intrinsic Motivation/self-motivation –. Internal motivation is a desire from within to obtain knowledge. Therefore, Artelt (2005:233) states that intrinsic learning incentives possibly reside within the learner. This can be attributed to striving towards self-actualization.
According to Herington and Weaver (2008:124), their study showed that engaging in group projects suggested that intrinsic factors may have encouraged students to engage in activities at different times, indicating the possibility that personal factors and social styles affected adopted learning approaches. Feeling – in this dimension the learner is conditioned in accordance to what feeling he possess towards learning, it is influenced by the peers/classmates, teacher and classroom environment. Attitudes – in this dimension the learner himself generate knowledge through his behavior, experience and determination to learn.
Peers/ classmates – in this dimension the learning acquisition of a child is being influenced by the people around him who has equal respects him as to year level, co-major, age, etc. or it is the assignment of students to help one another on a one-to-one basis in a small groups in a variety of situations. Classroom Climate – in this dimension the learner is being influenced by the classroom environment; such as the arrangement of the chairs, ventilation, lighting, pictures posted, cleanliness and room accommodation.
Teacher’s Behavior – in this dimension the learning acquisition of a child is being influenced by the behavior of the teacher in facilitating the teaching learning process. The second box is the dependent variable which consider as response or the expected output of this study. It comprises the academic achievement of CTE students and Effective instruction for the faculty assigned on the said program of study. The third box is the moderator variable. It contains the age, sex, civil status and program of study.
The broken line that is attached to the arrow from independent to independent variable signifies it’s influenced in achieving the second variable.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study aimed to determine the dimensions that affect learning acquisitions of CTE students in SDSSU-Lianga Campus, Lianga, Surigao del Sur. The result of this study hopes to benefit the following. School Administrator – the findings would help the administrators to innovate changes in line with the curriculum, instructional facilities and technological instructional availability.
It may help also to evaluate whatever trainings, seminar and workshops needed to supplement the faculty’s development for effective construction of knowledge. For teacher – the study would help the teacher to raise their awareness of those teaching techniques and methods that would congruence to the different dimensions affecting learning acquisition of the students. Through this proposed study the teachers will be able to facilitate the learning in an appropriate manner in accordance to what specific dimension do the students preferred most.
For students – the findings would help them to identify what dimensions of learning they excel in obtaining academic excellence and to determine how to cope up other dimensions to generate learning process faster resulting to the increase of their academic grades. Moreover, the findings would help the students modify their practiced attitudes towards learning into positive one, it is beneficial on their part because it will allow them to keep pace for whatever changes brought by the technology in the 21st century.
For Librarian – the study will serve as a reference material for the future researchers on the different dimensions that affect learning acquisition of the students. For Future Researchers – the study would serve as the basis to conduct more researchers related to the proposed study.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The proposed study will be limited on the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students, first semester in the academic year 2013-2014.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarification the following terms are defined as they are used in this study. The following terms are arranged alphabetically. Attitudes – is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols” (Hogg &Vaughan 2005, p. 150) Behavior – is the range of actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.
Dimensions – as used in this study, the term is being referred to the factors that affect the learning acquisition of a child. Extrinsic motivation – it refers to a motivation that plays an indispensable function when a learner is not yet intrinsically motivated to learn. It includes several factors such as rewards, incentives, praise or words of encouragements, approval of significantothers like parents, teachers, peers, etc. Feelings – it refers to a natural response of our thoughts and intentions. It is an affective state of consciousness, such as that esulting from emotions, sentiments, or desires. Peers/classmates – it refers to the people who are equal in such respects as age, education or social class etc. Intrinsic motivation – it refers to a motivation that is shown in the enjoyment of the activity itself and the inner convection of the learner that such things are the right things to do in order to realize a personal goal or a life dream. Learning Acquisition – it refers to a process by which a student gained knowledge in severalcontexts. Chapter II Review of Related Literature
Foreign Educational services are often not tangible and are difficult to measure because they result in the form of transformation of knowledge, life skills and behavior modifications of learners (Tsinidou, Gerogiannis, & Fitsilis, 2010). So there is no commonly agreed upon definition of quality that is applied to education field. The definition of quality of education varies from culture to culture (Michael, 1998). The environment and the personal characteristics of learners play an important role in their academic success.
The school personnel, members of the families and communities provide help and support to students for the quality of their academic performance. This social assistance has a crucial role for the accomplishment of performance goals of students at school (Goddard, 2003). Besides the social structure, parents’ involvement in their child’s education increases the rate of academic success of their child (Furstenberg & Hughes, 1995). A number of studies have been carried out to identify and analyze the numerous factors that affect academic performance in various centers of learning.
Their findings identify students’ effort, previous schooling (Siegfried &Fels, 1979; Anderson &Benjamin, 1994), parents’ education, family income (Devadoss& Foltz, 1996), self-motivation, age of student, learning preferences (Aripin, Mahmood, Rohaizad, Yeop, & Anuar, 2008), class attendance (Romer, 1993), and entry qualifications as factors that have a significant effect on the students’ academic performance in various settings. The utility of these studies lies in the need to undertake corrective measures that improve the academic performance of students, specially in public funded institutions. The throughput of public-funded institutions is under scrutiny especially because of the current global economic downturn which demands that governments improve efficiency in financial resource allocation and utilization. Although there has been considerable debate about the determinants of academic performance among educators, policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders, it is generally agreed that the impact of these determinants vary (in terms of extent and direction) with context, for example, culture, institution, course of study etc.
Since not all factors are relevant for a particular context, it is imperative that formal studies be carried out to identify the context-specific determinants for sound decision making. According to the study conducted by Jacqueline Korir (2012) learning was affected by change of facilities, environment, psychological adaptation and socio-economically. Local According to the study of Melrose A. Sali-ot in his study entitled Competencies of Instructions: It’s Correlation to the Factors affecting Academic Performance of Students on May 2011 he indicates five factors namely intellectual, physical, environmental, psychological and the teacher.
He found out that the most prevailing factor is the intellectual and the least prevailing was the physical factor.
Descriptive design particularly descriptive survey method will be used in this study. This survey method will determine the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students in SDSSU-Lianga Campus, Lianga, Surigao del Sur.
This study will be conducted at SDSSU-Lianga Campus, Lianga, Surigao del Sur.
It is 107 kilometers away from Butuan City, the heart of the Timber Corridor of the Philippines and 89 kilometers from Tandag, the Seat of Governance of the SDSSU System.
DETERMINATION OF THE SAMPLE SIZE
NV + [Se2 (1-p)] NSe + [V2p(1-p)] To determine the sample size, the researchers consider the entire population of the respondents (CTE Students) enrolled in the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The total population of the respondents is 169 as shown in table 1. To compute for the sample size of this study the below written formula will be used. Ss. =
Unrestricted random sampling will be used to get samples for the respondent’s population (CTE Students), wherein each CTE students has equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Lottery techniques will be used in getting samples. To draw a sample, each individual in the population will be given an assigned number which is written on a piece of paper that will be rolled thoroughly on the box once at a time. The computed sample size of the population is 130 out of 169 students in teacher education program. The researcher will select 130 papers on the box and those selected papers will consider as the respondents of this proposed study.
The computation of the sample size is shown below. NV + [Se2 (1-p)] NSe + [V2p(1-p)] Ss. = Given: N = 169 V = 2. 58 Se = 0. 01 P = 0. 50 169 (2. 58) + [(0. 01)2 (1-0. 50)] 169 (0. 01) + [(2. 58)2 (0. 50) (1-0. 50)] Ss= 436. 02 + 0. 00005 1. 69 + 1. 6641 = 436. 02005 3. 3541 = = 129. 996 Ss = 130
SAMPLING DESIGN AND TECHNIQUE
Unrestricted random sampling and lottery techniques will be used in this study.
RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY
The students of the College of Teacher Education of SDSSU-Lianga Campus, Lianga, Surigao del Sur enrolled during first semester A. Y 2013-2014 will be the respondents of the study.
The researchers will gather the master list of the students’ on the said semester and academic year from the SDSSU- Registrar wherein the study will be conducted and will be arrange according to year level. Distribution of the respondents is shown in table 1.
The questionnaire as designed by the researcher will include items from books, completed researches, and websites. The questionnaire consists of two parts. Part I will aim to gather information of the respondents profile as to age, sex, civil status and program of the study. Part II will deal on the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students along the following: Inner forces which comprises self-motivation, feeling, and attitude and for outer forces, it consist of peers/classmates, classroom climate and teacher’s behavior.
VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
The first draft of the questionnaire will be submitted to the researcher’s adviser for correction and suggestions. Several changes will be made. The revised form will then undergo reliability test through split half method. The questionnaire will be divided into two (2) halves, odd and even items. The result is reliability coefficient for a half test, the reliability coefficient of a whole test is estimated by using the Spearman – Brown formula. This formula is as follows. rwt = 2 (rht) 1 + rht Where: rwt = reliability of a whole test rht= reliability of the whole test.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
Having found the questionnaire valid and reliable the researcher will secure written permit from the Campus Director of SDSSU-Lianga Campus to allow researcher to conduct the study. Once the permit has been approved by the Campus Director, the researcher will administer the questionnaire to 130 CTE students. Data gathering will employ questionnaire.
Descriptive survey method will be used in the study to determine the dimensions that affect learning acquisition of CTE students. The data that will be gathered will be tabulated, treated statistically, and subjected to analysis and interpretation.