CHAPTER 1 CRIME THEORY: CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY There could be different reasons of increasing crimes. One of the obvious reasons is poverty and social injustice. Most of the people engaged in crime either don’t have proper source of income or they are socially discriminated. So the main reason of crime is poverty and social injustice. Most of the places with high poverty and social injustice have high crime rate (Jerry, 1995). The most important policy implications that would be most successful in reducing crime and/or rehabilitating convicted offenders in long term are critical criminology theories.
In critical criminology crimes are defined in terms of domination. That is if some class or group is dominant than they can make social concept lawful and unlawful. Lower class, single parent women, poor people and minorities mainly suffer due to domination factor by others (Hopkin, 2001). 1. 1 Broad Problem Area: “Importance of Critical Criminology in Reducing Crimes” Justice system around the world is not strong enough to reduce crimes. So we need alternative approach through which criminals can become useful and productive member of the society.
It’s not easy to completely change justice system but it’s not difficult to make criminals better citizens as well. Critical criminology is an effective way to reduce social injustice and crimes. Concept of critical criminology came in late sixties and early seventies. It mainly deals with the dominative and differential relation between different groups on the basis of demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, minorities, cultures, values and social groups.
This culture and social diversity was created due to migrations and human nature. Social indifferences are another form of injustice. It’s important to support these peoples who are being discriminated (Bauman and Tester, 2001). According to Wikipedia Encyclopedia, in critical criminology the scope of crimes is defined differently on the basis of social circumstances and time period of their occurrence. Critical criminology is somewhat different from basic study of criminology that deals with criminals and their behaviors.
The basic idea of critical criminology is that the social and past trends would define whether some thing is unlawful or not at given time. There could be different things that are considered to be unlawful in past but now they are lawful and same goes with those things which are lawful in past but now they are unlawful. Such as marriage of homosexuals was considered to be unlawful in past but now with the passage of time societies are accepting this and making laws to protect marriages of homosexuals.
This is not possible that all the studies on crimes are dealing with modern social life but they are some way connected to the present (Garland, 1999). There could be different theories that could emerges from critical criminology such as conflict theories, feminist theories, & postmodern and peacemaking theories. A conflict theory of criminology is not accepted largely by criminologist because they think conflict theories don’t address the criminal activities in socialist and capitalist societies.
Feminist theories define that crime done by males and crimes done by females should be viewed differently. They give new aspect to criminology on the basis of gender. Critical criminologists have different views and way of resolving crimes. These two theories are mainly recognized around the world. Main emphasis is given to relation between criminals and societies. Even feminist criminologists don’t properly represent gender prospective and take back their views after failure of other criminologists (Van, 1997). There is a difference between critical criminology and conventional criminology.
Conventional criminology is not dealing with activities which are affecting life of thousands of people such as politicians’ decisions that could affect millions of people, corporate scandals that affected thousands of workers, stock market manipulations that affected thousand of investors and also discriminations of minorities that have no end. Conventional laws do not answer these structural disparities that helps dominate group to take advantage of it. Conventional criminology is dealing with state defined crimes but not the crimes that are harming society ocially (Stephen, 1983). Criminologists working to find ways to resolve or to reduce crimes are not able to identify or not able to provide any authentic procedures to resolve crimes (Braithwaite, 1998). And also they didn’t even give importance to issues or difference created due to power and state (Cunneen and White 1996). This is still a claim that critical craniologist are more inclined towards gaining some position and recognition rather than actually doing some thing for society to protect human rights and to promote justice in society.
Since 1960, activists in human rights and social justice are molding progress in critical criminology theory. There is a relation between criminologists and social & human right moments (Braithwaite, 1989). Critical criminologist overstates the crime problem in society. Instead of removing the mystery that crimes are not their and its media created etc. they should accept crimes as a dilemma of powerless. They must not criticize criminal system by keeping this fact in mind that it is created by undue protection given to the privileged class.
There is a cause effect relationship between crimes and poverty, racism, discrimination, social injustice, racisms etc. Critical criminoloiges must keep this in mind while evaluating crimes. However, critical criminology and traditional criminology should not work in different ways rather they should work together in the same way. (Cohen, 1998). 1. 2 Problem Statement: “Is Critical thinking is helpful to reduce crimes and able to reduce social injustice from society”. 1. 3 Purpose & Significance of Study
The main purpose of this study is to identify the importance of critical criminology in order to reduce crimes. This study will also identify other ways to reduce crimes and their effectiveness. And it will also explain what factors are responsible for crimes. This study will help policy makers and law enforcing agencies to avoid crimes by using proper critical criminology theories. 1. 4 Research Questions The aim of this research is to study, 1) How do people perceive that critical criminology can reduce crimes? 2) How do people perceive the role of critical criminology in order to reduce injustice from society? ) How do people perceive that critical criminology approach is better way to reduce crime rather than conventional criminology approach? 1. 5 Theoretical Diagram In this diagram crimes reduction is dependent variable which depend on critical criminology that is independent variable. Critical Criminology method that properly identify social injustices that could change offender future behavior towards crime and society support to accept these people as a useful member of society are intervening variable. These variables can assure the effectiveness of counseling treatment to reduce crimes.
Independent Variable Dependent Variable Intervening Variable CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the basic methodology and requirement in research. It includes the methods of research, the respondents and their description, sources of data, the sets of research instruments that were used, the treatment of data, and the statistical tools, which were used in this study. 2. 1 Method of the Study: The research utilized the descriptive method in acquiring information for evaluation and analysis. The descriptive survey was the general rocedure employed in a study that has for its chief purposes the description of the phenomena that is importance of critical criminology theory in reducing crimes from society by providing social injustice. 2. 2 Sample, Type of Questionnaire, & Treatment of Data: The population for this research study was the general public. A random sample of 50 was taken from different places and different groups such as law enforcing agencies, community, criminologist etc. Researcher selected probability sampling, because every person had an equal chance of being selected.
The survey questionnaire seeks the perception of the respondents with respect to factors important for crime reduction. In order to analyze the information given in the questionnaires, Likert scale had been applied in question 1 to question 9. The purpose is to evaluate effectiveness of counseling in crime reduction. 2. 3 Validation of the questionnaire: It was deemed necessary to revalidate the questionnaire to find out the clarity of the questions being asked as well as their relevance to the problems formulated. The validation of the questionnaire was done through the comments and suggestion by respondent.
And also validation and reliability of research instrument used to get information that is questionnaire is done by implementing it to different places and same results were extracted from every place. 2. 4 Statistical Tools: Researcher used frequency and percentage distribution to determine the relationships of the variables and give clear and reliable analysis and interpretation of the data. The formula is; % = F/N ? 100 % = percentage F = frequency N = number of respondent CHAPTER 3 QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS, FINDINGS & CONCLUSION 3. 1 Questionnaire Analysis: Respondent responded in the following way: Topic Based on Questionnaire |Highly Disagree | Disagree | Moderately | |Highly Agree | | | | | |Agree | | |Critical criminology is providing support to poor, minority |11% |18% |25% |42% |4% | |and low social class group | | | | | | |Critical criminology theory is important to reduce social |0% |0% |14% |57% |29% | |differences | | | | | | |Main reason of increasing crime rate is social injustice |3% |10% |21% |40% |26% | |Critical criminology is playing important role in order to |11% |28% |31% |26% |4% | |highlight social injustices | | | | | | |Critical criminology is different from conventional |29% |36% |19% |10% |6% | |criminology | | | | | | |There is a difference of opinion among critical criminologist |18% |24% |21% |30% |7% | |Critical criminologists are criticizing conventional justice |17% |19% |23% |35% |6% | |system that it supports to powerful class | | | | | | Social movement regarding human rights and social justice is |0% |0% |9% |55% |36% | |supporting critical criminologist | | | | | | |Critical criminologists are working for their recognition |26% |37% |21% |10% |6% | |rather than to support social injustice | | | | | | 3. 2 Findings & Conclusion: On the basis of the questionnaire, most of the respondent responded that critical criminology is providing support to poor, minority and low social class group and critical criminology theory is important to reduce social differences • On the basis of the questionnaire, most of the respondent agreed on a statement that main reason of increasing crime rate is social injustice and critical criminology is playing important role in order to highlight social injustices • On the basis of the questionnaire, most of the respondent responded moderately agreed on a statement that critical criminology is different from conventional criminology and there is a difference of opinion among critical criminologist • On the basis of the questionnaire, most of the respondent responded that critical criminologists are criticizing conventional justice system that it supports to powerful class and social movement regarding human rights and social justice is supporting critical criminologist. In these days societies are giving more focus to crime, victimization, regulation, punishment, with respect to human rights, equity, social justice, well being of the community, and globalization.
More activists are taking interest in decreasing discrimination and imbalances in societies. They are trying to gather more people to take action for the betterment of society and this will affect both antiestablishment and establishment criminologies. If model of Mutualism develops with the same pace than critical criminologists have to revise their studies and ways to resolve crimes. They have to establish the relation between antiestablishment and establishment criminologies not for individual but for the society. Now societies are moving from equal rights and equal justice to human rights and social justice due to social movement to protect rights. References:
Bauman, Z. , & Tester, K. (2001). Conversations with Zygmunt Bauman. Cambridge: Polity Press. Braithwaite, J. 1989. Crime, Shame and Reintegration. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Braithwaite, J. 1998. Reducing the Crime Problem: A Not So Dismal Criminology. The New Criminology Revisited, London: Macmillan. Chan, J. 1996. Crime Prevention and the Lure of Relevance. Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Criminology, 27(1): 25-9. Cunneen, C. , and White, R. 1996. Juvenile Justice: An Australian Perspective. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press Garland, D. (1999). The Commonplace and the Catastrophic. Theoretical Criminology, 3(3), pp. 353-64.
Hopkins, B. R. (2001). An Introduction to Criminological Theory. Cullompton: Willan pg. 173 Jerry, B. (1995). Crime Control: We the People. Radio broadcasts. North Coast XPress. Stephen, B. 1983. Power & Crime. Van, S. R. (1997). Critical Criminology: Visions from Europe. London: Sage Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Critical Criminology. 2008. Retrieved on 12 July 2008 from http:// en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Critical_criminology QUESTIONNAIRE: RESEARCH PAPER CRIME THEORY: CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY Direction: Please indicate the degree of importance as perceived by you, by putting a tick mark opposite to each of the number item showing the degree of perception. Scale |Weights | |Highly Disagree |1 | |Disagree |2 | |Moderately |3 | |Agree |4 | |Highly Agree |5 | 1) At what extent do you think critical criminology is providing support to poor, minority and low social class group? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 2) At what extent do you think critical criminology theory is important to reduce social differences?
Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 3) At what extent do you think main reason of increasing crime rate is social injustice? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 4) At what extent do you think critical criminology is playing important role in order to highlight social injustices? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 5) At what extent do you think critical criminology is different from conventional criminology?
Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6) At what extent do you think there is a difference of opinion among critical criminologist? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 7) At what extent do you think critical criminologists are criticizing conventional justice system that it supports to powerful class? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 ) At what extent do you think social movement regarding human rights and social justice is supporting critical criminologist? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 9) At what extent do you think critical criminologists are working for their recognition rather than to support social injustice? Highly Disagree Highly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 ———————– Critical Criminology CRIMES REDUCTION Feminist Theory Conflict Theory Postmodern & Peacemaking Theories