Causes of WWI
Newspapers, literature, music, parades, propaganda, and theatre all fueled Nationalism Our nation is special, unique and superior Can not be defeated Our government and military will win any conflict Royal, politicians, and diplomats fueled this belief and pushed this belief Such hype ND arrogance led many to believe war was good, Inevitable, and would only prove their arrogant belief Europe had not seen War or experienced significant military loss for decades which only added to their misfiles Examples Many people like the British thought the war would be over in a matter of months Thought it was spiritual with God on your side… ND war enthusiasm Felt entitled to more land Militarism Militarism AND THE EUROPEAN ARMS race were both contributing factors to WWW When a country decides to grow and focus on their military Spent a lot of money on weapons/defense Drafting folks into military
The dreadnought (battleship) LED TO THE WAR using power of weapons to destroy others Alliances made alliances even if they weren’t “mad” at the other country 2) Sucked in other HUGE countries to help them in war 3) Led to world wide war Otherwise would’ve been local war Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente Russia, France, Britain Imperialism Industrialism Building factors, big business’s In order to be a successful factory, you needed materials Everybody wanted something, natural competition out of industrialization Hungry for resources, coal, tin, steel Mechanisms of war to build
Competition over territory When Austria annexes Bosnia The blackhead didn’t like it (Yugoslavian nationalists) Want their own kind of Serbian Yugoslavian empire Their way of saying how they disapprove is by assassinating Archduke Ferdinand June 24, 1918 Gabriel Principia Austria declares war on Serbia, as a result of the assassination because of the assassination Russia sides with Serbia Weapons of War Machine Guns Used as defensive weapon Took 4 men to operate 1 gun Usually positioned on flat tripod Fired 400-600 rounds p minute Short burst shot Rapidly overeat without cooling mechanism (water)
Had to carry large amounts of water to big battles IF they ran out of water, they would use urine Tanks Protected soldiers inside and behind Helped get people across “no-man’s land” Awkward and uncomfortable but useful, but hot Poison Gas Burned skin Destroyed lungs Used them to put in trenches Gas might blow toward your men Trenches Weren’t very hospitable Dug by soldiers who were going to fight No Man’s Land Land between trench’s Filled u=of bombs, mud, holes, barbed wire Health Giants rats, lice, cooties are body lice Rats and pests Weather Muddy and cold, trench foot (cool temp and wet foot) Deteriorating foot Salted meat and crackers Boredom Played cars, letters, go out and shoot rats Chores Soccer Game During Christmas Truce Traumas Trench foot Trench fever Sickness and disease Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PETS) Caused by being in battle or war for an extended amount of time Also known as shell shock Suffer from nightmares and horrors Families were changed Soldiers came back and weren’t the same Still have PETS through relatives dying Three Key Battles of WWW The Battle of Verdure Feb. 21-Deck 16 1916 Ten month battle BTW France and Germany Neither side gained much of an advantage Roughly half a million lost on each side No advantage for either side Battle of Jutland Naval battle Gave allies control of sea, British now had most powerful Ana Sea superiority America was supporting by sending supplies over ships Only major naval battle of WWW Meanwhile, Germany focuses on U-boat Children in War Girl scouts Raised cookies Collected peach pits for gas masks Made gardens Boy scouts Looked out for incoming ships Victory gardens with schools Red Cross Poems Motivations of a poet were the horrors and question their existence of God John Peal Bishop – were in the war and questioning God
Joyce Killer – why friends died and questioning God Archibald Manacles – talking about mother nature Woodrow Wilson President, reelected again for no war Reluctant to Join WWW He had to because of the Louisiana (ship that was sunk) Ship was sunk because USA was transporting Britain weapons and food Zimmerman Telegram German ambassador Sent coded message to Mexico that said: Join the war and you’ll get land British coded it out and told USA Toward the end of the war, Willow’s wrote document called “14 Points” that said to be a lasting peace and no more war Make a league of nations New George Washington” David Lloyd Jorge British prime Up to him to work with French Had to negotiate on how to work together Oversaw the building of the royal navy. ar (navy) Convoy is key – group of soldiers in unison Sent a bunch of ships, scouting, and looking for u boats If you can’t keep supplies going to Europe, then your men will be out of food, bullets, medicine, and soldiers George Clemencies “Curious George” Key drafter in treaty of Versailles Much of French countryside was completely destroyed French suffered greatly since it was destroying their country Easy to point a finger on Curious George, now there was a reason to be mad at Paris was evacuated Mad at Germany, made sure Germany paid for the war Gassed by John Singer Sergeant Aftermath of a mustard gas attack Bravery of soldiers Wounded and dead soldiers all over the ground The soldiers have blindfolds over their eyes to try to protect their eyes from the burning gas Hipics and Native Americans Lots of people had prejudices against people not white in the war Stereotype that certain type of people, considering their not white enough, as being unable to contribute Many Hipics served (200,00) David Barley changed his name to go in front, blended in
Native Americans were code talkers Anyone who could speak Chickasaws were pulled to send messages Letters and Interviews Hildebrand Scan No money Hard to get Job Injured (one leg/arm) Many died from illness Flu was going through Lied to get in because thy wanted to fight so badly Myth of war was going to have a great experience Censored letters Didn’t’ want people to lose support Didn’t want people to tell horrible experiences Squashes their spirits Always going to stay positive Economic and Social Aspects of World War I War bonds – whenever you buy a war bond, it gave money to the government so they loud use it on the army After the war, you would get a small interest back 20 Billion dollars Social aspects Private industries donated Woman in work force Black markets emerging Victories exaggerated for morale A lot of propaganda Women are going to get more Jobs then they ever had since so many men were overseas Social Effects Most went for heroism Gas warfare caused fear (mustard gas) for soldiers Restricted rights in Britain WWW government restricted people that they couldn’t say bad stuff about the government Social Rights Huge propaganda Illegal to criticize gob Social Impact New field of occupation Health, manufacturing guns Better conditions Increase of nurses Increase of transport/services African Americans Thought it would give them better treatment and opportunity They split the blacks and whites into 92nd and 93rd infantry Weren’t many blacks in the Ana Some fought alongside the French Awarded by French for their bravery Most women got factory Jobs and nurse Jobs Harlem Hellfire’s It took them 4 trains and 2 ferries to transport black veterans Punished for killing people Race riot at camp Discrimination Wanted higher wages and better working conditions
There was residential segregation Great Migration – blacks living in the south saw opportunities for better work and less racism up north Go up north and look for a place to live Said they were told by people that they can’t live in a certain part of town Many blacks like Henry Johnson were given awards for how hard they fought Blacks felt like they had to prove themselves The Treaty of Versailles End cap of war This treaty is so important in understanding WI Central Powers Germany – mil dead Austral-Hugger -1. 2 mil dead Turkey 325,000 dead Bulgaria – 100,000 dead Total losses – 8. 5 mil dead, 2. Mil wounded The Big Three David Lloyd George (Britain), Clemencies (France), and Woodrow Wilson (America) Italy had an alliance with Germany when the war started and remained neutral in the war until they finally sided with Allied forces This caused Italy to technically be the fourth Big country in the war, but were not involved in signing of the treaty much Russia had Just gotten out of “Stalin’s Purge” > great loss David Lloyd George of Britain wanted Germany to be punished but he didn’t not want to be kicked out of office for punishing to little.
His goal was to punish Germany for their crimes but not o much Woodrow Wilson didn’t want much movement in the treaty, he believed it was up to Europe, but he still believed in punishing Germany The only thing he really wanted was a league of nations set in place in Europe, The league of Nation was a council of European countries working together Clemencies wanted revenge of Germany Terms of Treaty Military Terms Germany was to have a very limited army The army force was reduced to 100,00 men Only 6 naval ships No tanks No air force No gas weapons No heavy artillery General Terms of The Treaty Germany had to admit responsibility for the war meaning he had to pay all the image he caused, they had to pay over 6 mil 6 hundred pounds and the repair their own country. The league of nation was set up to keep the peace, but not the way Wilson wanted it to be The Germans only had two options, sign the treaty, or be invaded The treaty gave away 13. % of Germany’s land to other countries and almost it all of it’s colonies in other parts of world It also demoralized the western part of Germany for 1 5 years Sum: Germany had to take blame for the war and took away it’s weapons Negotiation The treaty was negotiated from Jan 1919 to June 1919 The treaty had 15 parts and 440 articles IT ended the war officially on June 28 1919 The Germans started disobeying this disagreement in the sass’s Hitler denounced treaty altogether in 1935 ON September 1, 1939 Hitler attacked Poland The impact of WWW on Women outside, dealing with forestry, service and cars, police force, nurses on the front line, fixing equipment, running messages, playing sports,”hello girl” – telephone operators, helped communication between trenches and lieutenants.
Widowed, women had to adjust to man, (PETS) Juggle with career, kids,(single mom duty) Toward the end of the war, men come back and want all these Jobs back Women are old “it’s your patriotic duty to go back home” forced to go back home Men in army want their Jobs back from blacks and women Because they played a key role in the economy, 19th amendment will be passed – right to vote Flu Pandemic 1918 and 1919 Originated from Spain, they called it the Spanish flu Kills more people than the war Roughly 20-40 million people died Conditions of warfare (training in facilities) going to forts and camps and the conditions that they live in are very congested If someone got the flu, it was easily caught Same thing in the trenches t Flu killed people within 24 hours, a lot of people survived, but more people died
People war masks to prevent from flu Resources were limited as to keeping up with the sick Schools, churches, gems, to lay out bodies and help people Doctors and nurses were in shortage Elevates to the point where your respiratory system and blood causes your system to fail How the US Got Ready for WWW Draft people (selective service act) Age 21-30 were drafted Some volunteered 3 million men served Dodge draft, religious reasons to not fight Raise money Liberty bonds Espionage Act – worried about others spying on us Go after people who aid the enemy German spies in US (terrorist from Germany) Sedition act Don’t criticize government or the war effort Propaganda Committee of Public information Posters Movies Demonic or villainies Remember causes of war Harlem Hell fighters Most honored army Black people People had their own music Jazz) Jazz age came Women Women in WWW don’t get much real attention Women did lots of munitions work Dangerous work, often lost fingers, could lose their life They were the ones who made sure the men overseas had bullets, shells, guns, and uniforms in which to fight. They pushed and moved heavy trucks Learned to mix chemicals Assemble airplanes Learned to weld and rivet Got to vote Operate machine tools