Art History Study Notes
Art Hist. Review Ancient Greek Art and Arch. (600 BCE-30 BCE) The Early Classical Period 480-450 BCE 5. 23 KRITIOS BOY Acropolis, Athens 480 BCE -Marble -He is self confident and serious looking -He is a sculpture in the round -The artist is believed to be KRITIOS -The statue has an S-curve to him and is in the contrapposto pose, which is when artists use tension and relaxation around the central axis of the body to increase to muscular tension and enhance the musculature of a body. It is shown here because his weight is all on the left foot, causing his hip to jut out.
His right knee is slightly bent and he has a slight drop in his shoulders. -The artist also made a point to have his head slightly turned to hint that the viewer should take in the entirety of the piece. High Classical Period 450-400 BCE 5. 29 ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 447-432 BCE -In the High classical period which only lasted a half-century and set the standards for art and architecture. There was also turmoil between the Spartans and the Athenians in this time period which was referred to as the Peloponnesian War. -“Acro” means high and “polis” means city. The Acropolis of Athens was once considered a fortress and sanctuary but was later turned into a religious and ceremonial centre for Athena the cities patron and protector. -It was destroyed by Persian troops in 480 BCE and was going to be left and a memorial site of ruins but Perikles convinced them to rebuild it. 5. 31 Parthenon, Acropolis Athens 447-432 BCE -KALLIKRATES AND IKTINOS -Pantelic Marble -Has the pediment, frieze, triglyph, metope, architrive, abacus, mechinus and necking -Athens, Corinth and Sparta. Depicted gods and goddesses who they believed were immortal and supernatural -Sanctuaries for gods and goddesses in form of outdoor alters—replaced by temples integrated into natural site -temples decorated with ceramic sculptures -mathematical proportions which artists use to convey structure and order 4:9 ratio 4×2+1 -human values of truth virtue and harmony -High classical period -plain capital -temple dedicated to Athena -stylobate floor columns rest on and stereobate foundation itself -post and lintel system -entasis columns slightly swell in the middle -Doric order plain capitals peace, prosperity and power through the building projects -transport wood, gold, marble and ivory -sculptures celebrate the Greek victory over Persians 5. 32 EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON 447-432 BCE (ATHENS) – High Classical period 450-400 BCE -Sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Parthenon -illustrated the birth of Athena, fully grown and clad in armor, from the brow of her father Zeus. -The statues from the west pediment are the best preserved of the two. -besides Zeus and the newborn Athena are three goddesses followed by a single reclining male figure who could be Diomysos or Herakles. In the left corner was Helios (sun god) in his horse-drawn chariot rising from the sea and to the right the moon god Selene descends in her chariot to the sea. -The running female figure in the center is Iris the messenger of the gods. P. G. 134 SPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) 450-440 BCE (NAPLES) -POLYKLEITOS -Marble -developed canon of proportions system of measurement used to determine the proportions of the body -contropposto pose is balance and counterbalance one foot bearing weight and one not bearing the weight.
In this case his right foot is the one bearing all the weight of his body while the left foot is relaxed. -It is said to be the hero Achilles -Theorists believed that the basic unit was the length of the figures index finger or the width of the figures hand across the knuckles; others think it was the height of the head from chin to hairline. -S-curve -High classical period -spear bearer, idealized, exaggerated The Late Classical Period 400-323 BCE 5. 46 MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) 350-325 (VATICAN) -LYSIPPOS -Marble sculpture -Done in the late classical period male nude athlete, which is a typical Classical subject -This is a sculpture in the round that depicts a young athlete after his workout removing dirt and oil from his body with a tool called a strigil. -Has a different canon of proportions than The Spear Bearer. -His head is smaller in proportion to The Spear Bearer and his legs are spread further apart to counterbalance his outstretched arms. -There is a pronounced S-curve to his posture. -The arms break free into the surrounding space inviting the viewer to take in the entirety of the piece. The Early Roman Empire 27 BCE-96 CE P. G. 76-177 ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE 13-9 BCE -Ancient roman art -Dedicated to Augustus’ triumphant return from the capital after three years of establishing Roman rule in Gaul and Hipia. -It was aligned with a giant sundial. -it contained propoganda of portraiture and allegory, religion and polotics and the private and the public. -on the inside of the alter there are foliate garlands suspended in swags from ox skulls, which symbolize sacrificial offering at the alter during annual commemorations and garlands signify the continuing peace and prosperity brought to the Roman world by Augustae. Augustae’s Imperial Family is depicted on the south side of the Ara Pacis and represent his extended family, possibly Marcus Agrippa (far left) who might have been his successor. The child pulling at Agrippa’s robe is possibly Agrippa’s son Gaius Caesar. The women next to Agrippa on the right may be Augustus’ wife, Livia who grasps her younger sons hand (Germanicus) who is in beside Tiberius (the next emporer). Behind Tiberius is Antonia, Augusts’ niece who looks at her husband Drusus (Livia’s younger son). -Pax Romana — Roman Peace -pointifex maximus—high priest 6. 34 & 6. 5 FLAVION AMPITHEATER (COLOSSEUM) 70-80 CE (ROME) -Tuscan bottom -Ionic middle -Corinthian on top -It was called the colosseum because the statue of Nero called the colossus stood next to it. -seating was by rank lower the rank higher you sat -Early Roman Empire -Flavion dynasty -begun under Vespasian finished under Titus -soldiers would fight animals -tiered seating with good sight lines from where you sit. -Top level covered by and onning -top story in referred to as attic -cartouche —shield shaped ornaments -look at Roman arches High Imperial Art of Trajan and Hadrian 6. 38 MODEL OF IMPERIAL ROME 324 CE
Colosseum, Temple of Venus and Rome, Arch of Titus, Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Rorum of Vespasian, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Julius Ceasar, Rostrum, Forum of Trajan, Basilica Ulpia, Colmn of Trajan, Patheon. 6. 45 THE PANTHEON 118-128 CE (ROME) -It was built for the “all the gods” -built by Marcus Agrippa son in law of Augustus -it has a giant rotunda surmounted by a huge, bowl-shaped dome. -the oculus that allows light into the rotunda building shows a pattern-like formation when looking up at the coffers in the dome’s ceiling. -Corinthian columns -optimus is a skylight or opening in dome corticoid of columns -Exadraie niche for the statues rectilinear and rounded arches -made out of brick and concrete (powdered lime, small rocks, pebbles, rubble) -produced during high imperial period -Hadrian oversaw building of this he admired Greek art and arch. -podium or steps in front of building that lead to porch -Rotunda and dome -Pantheon means all the gods Early Christian Art P. G. 228 OLD ST. PETER’S BASILICA 320-327 (ROME) -It is a longitudinal-plan churches are characterized by a forecourt, the atrium, leading to an entrance porch, the narthex, which ps one of the building’s short ends. The nave can be lit by windows along its upper level just under the clerestories, called a clerestory above the aisles roof. -At the opposite end of the nave from the narthex is a semicircular projection, the apse, which functions as the building’s focal point where the alter, raised on a platform. -plan is known as the Latin cross CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA 350 (ROME) -This church is a central-plan church, which were first used by the Christians. -Central planned churches have an atrium, a narthex, and an apse. It has a central more vertical axis from the center up through the dome, which may have functioned as a symbolic “vault of heaven”. 7. 15 ORATORY OF GALLA PLACIDIA 425-426 (RAVENNA) -It is one of the earliest surviving Christian structures in Ravenna is an oratory, which is a small chapel). -Its named after Honorius’ half-sister Galla Placidia. -Galla Placidia was the daughter of Western Roman Emperor, the wife of a Gothic King and the mother of Emperor Valentinian. -This small building is cruciform, which means cross-shaped. -Each arm is covered with a Barrel vault and a pendentive dome covers the square base at its center. it is designed to make you feel as though you are walking from the real world to the supernatural world as you walk into the interior of the church. -the upper walls are filled with standing apostles, gesturing like orators. Eternal life in heaven is symbolized by doves flanking a small fountain between the apostles. -The Marter caries a cross over his shoulder like a trophy gesturing towards the fire-engulfed grill he was roasted on martyrdom. The Gospels are to the left signifying the faith for which he gave his life. 7. 16 THE GOOD SHEPARD 425-426 (RAVENNA) Jesus is an adult emperor wearing purple and gold royal robes. He wears a golden halo and carries a golden staff that ends in a cross to represent his imperial majesty. -Christianity was the official state of religion for the 45 years this is why the artist chose to depict Jesus in the mosaic. Early Byzantine Art 7. 17 CHURCH OF HAGIA SOPHIA 532-537 (ISTANBUL) -ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES AND ISIDORUS OF MILETUS -means Holy Wisdom -It was rebuilt after a devastating revolt that killed 30,000 people set fire to the old church burning it to the ground. -Anthemius and Miletus rebuilt the church in just 5 years longitudinal and central architectural planning -flanking conches-semi domes-extend the extend central space into longitudinal nave with the narthex on one end and the half dome of the sanctuary apse on the other. The core called the naos is flanked by side isles and galleries overlooking the naos. 7. 20 CHURCH OF SAN VITALE 520 (RAVENNA) -Ecclesius bishop of Ravenna commissioned two new churched one for the port and one the city. -A martyrium is a church built over a grave was dedicated to 4th-century Roman martyr St. Vitalis in the 520’s -central domed octogon with circular rooms flanking the apse. the church and palace are joined by a separate oval narthex and access to second floor gallery. -It has a double set of doors leading into the church. 7. 21-7. 22 CHRIST ENTHRONED, FLANKED BY ANGELS, ST. VITALIS AND BISHOP ECCLESIUS 547 ( RAVEENA) -Early Byzantine Art -Christ is flanked by St. Vitalis and Bishop Ecclesius. -Christ appears dressed in imperial purple and enthroned on an orb of paradise, which is evident because of the 4 rivers that flow beneath him. -two winged angels flank him, like imperial bodyguards or attendants. -Christ holds a scroll with 7 seals at his Second Coming at the end of time. he offers a crown to martyrdom (far left) labeled by St. Vitalis. -Bishop Eucclesius holds a model of the church offering it to Christ. 7. 23 EMPEROR JUSTINIAN AND HIS ATTENDANTS, NORTH WALL OF APSE 547 (RAVENNA) -Early Byzantine Art -Justinian carries a large golden paten that will be used to hold the Eucharitic Host and stands beside Maximianus, who holds a gold jewel encrusted cross. The priests to the right hold carry the Gospels, in a golden jeweled book that symbolizes the coming of Word, and a censer with burning incense to purify. 7. 24 EMPRESS THEODORA AND HER ATTENDANTS, SOUTH WALL OF THE APSE 547 (RAVENNA) -Early Byzantine Art Theodora wears a golden halo and elaborate crown while she stands under a fluted shell canopy, she carries a jeweled golden chalice. -The rulers present these gifts as offerings to Christ -At the bottom of Theodora’s cloak the three Magi who brought gifts to Jesus are depicted. -Revolves around themes of offering -They stand beside a fountain and the open doorway and curtain are space-creating devices. 7. 35 CHRIST PANTOKRATOR AT CREST OF CENTRAL DOME, WITH SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST IN THE PENDENIVES, (GREECE) LATE 11TH CENTURY -Early Byzantine Art The image of the Pantokrator is at the centre of the dome like a divine surveyor. -Christ blesses the segregation with one hand and clutches a massive book in the other. -In the corners piers are four signal life episodes: Annunciation, Nativity, Baptism and Transfiguration. 14. 13 14. 14 PALACE CHAPEL OF CHARLEMAGNE 792-805 (GERMANY) -The Carolingian Empire – Was Charlemagne’s private place of worship. -central octagonal plan with a monumental western entrance block. -It used westwork, which is a structure combined with a ground-floor narthex and an upper level throne room that opened onto the chapel interior. It also opened outside into a large walled forecourt. – The core of the chapel is surrounded by and ambulatory and a gallery on the second floor which rises to a clerestory under the dome and above the gallery. -There are Corinthian columns on the gallery level. -This chapel was clearly inspired by Byzantine Architecture with the mosaics and patterned multi-colored stone. 14. 16 SAINT GALL PLAN 817 (SWITZERLAND) -The Carolingian Empire -At the center of the Saint Gall Plan is the cloister, which is an enclosed courtyard which opens all the buildings that are most central to the lives of the monks. the large basilican church to the north of the cloister is where monks would gather for communal prayer throughout the day and night. -on the north side of the church there were public buildings. -the monks living quarters were off to the southern and eastern sides of the cloister with the dormitory, refectory and work rooms. – the kitchen, brewery and bakery were attached to the refectory and a huge cellar was on the west side. -Along the East edge there is a hospital, cemetery, and an educational center. 14. 24 DOORS OF BISHOP BERWARD 1015 (GERMANY) -Bronze doors are more than 16 feet tall. Ottonian Europe -cast in the lost wax process -the left side depicted scenes from the Hebrew bible and the right was scenes from the new testament. -It depicts life in paradise, the fall, life in the new world and Eve’s children on the left and Promise of Return to Paradise, The passion, Infancy of Jesus and Mary’s child on the right. -all depicted in low relief Romanesque Art : in the Roman manner P. G. 458 THE PILGRIMAGE ROUTES TO SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA -In the 11th and 12th centuries religious pilgrimage became very popular in Western Europe. 15. 7-8 THE ABBEY AT CLUNY 1088-1130 (FRANCE) in the 2nd half of the 11th century there were 200 monks in residence. -The cloister is at the center of the monastic community joining the church with domestic buildings and workshops. -it had elaborately carved capitals and relief sculptures on the piers. -it may have been to direct and inspire the monks thoughts and prayers. -Cluniac monks observed the traditional 8 hours of the Divine Office spread over the day and night. -The church was a basilica with five aisles, double transept with chapels and an ambulatory and radiating chapels around the alter. The nave had a three part elevation -it had pointed arches with Classical ornaments. -there were clerestory windows in each bay and a pointed barrel vault with transverse arches. 15. 9 -10 NAVE, ABBEY CHURCH OF NOTRE-DAME, FONTENAY 1139-1147 – founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux – no interior decoration because he believed it would be a distraction to the monks – Cistercians led a very austere simple life – Romanesque means in the Rome manner – Feudalism lords owned lands loaned to Basils and bellow Basils were Peasants – Building has simplicity, austerity Windows symbolize the holy trinity- father, son and the holy ghost – Cloister is where the monks gathered – Simple geometric plan with a long bay-divided nave, rectangular chapels off the square ended transept arms and a shallow choir. – There are pointed barrel vaults over the nave and pointed arches in the nave arcade and side isle bays. 15. 22 SOUTH PORTAL AND PORCH, SHOWING CHRIST IN MAJESTY, PRIORY CHURCH OF SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC 1115 (FRANCE) -Christ in Majesty dominates the tympanum and is a visual of the Second Coming in chapters 4 and 5 of the Revelation. He is enclosed by a mandorla and a halo rings his head -the four winged creatures symbolize the evangelists, Matthew the man, Mark the lion, Luke the ox and John the eagle. -rippling bands may represent waves in the “sea of class like crystal” THE LAST JUDGMENT TYMPANUM AT AUTUN 1120- 1130 (FRANCE) -GISLEBERTUS -Inscription in Latin on Christ -Mary is enthroned as Queen of heaven and St. Peter bellow is shown with the large keys slung over his shoulder as heavenly gatekeeper. -angel pushes the saved into open archway and into heaven another figure stands beside the angel impatiently waiting to be hoisted up as well. cross and scallop shell identify two bottom figures as former pilgrims and will be a factor in their favor at the last judgment. -hell is represented as a Basilica with the devil emerging capturing sinners for eternal torment -he uses a sharp hook to capture luxuria who is the personification for lust. Gothic Art of the 12th and 13th Centuries 16. 6 WEST FACADE, CHARTERS CATHEDRAL 1134-1260 (FRANCE) -dedicated to the virgin Mary its main treasure is a piece of cloth said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary when she gave birth to Jesus. -It was a gift from Byzantine Empress Irene to Charlemagne surrounding the three doors is the Royal Portal used for important ceremonial entrances -the middle tympanum Christ enthroned in majesty returns at the end of time surrounded by 4 evangelists. The apostles in 4 groups of 3 fill the litel while 24 elders of the Apocalypse line the archivolts. -The right portal is dedicated to the Incarnation and shows Mary in the early life of Christ -in the left portal is the Ascension where Jesus floats up in a cloud supported by angels. -On the top of the three portals Jesus’ life on earth is depicted in a series of narrative scenes. Kings, Queens and prophets from the Hebrew bible are what give the Royal Portal its name. 16. 10-11 NAVE & PLAN,CHARTERS CATHEDRAL 1194 (FRANCE) -Romanesque pilgrimage plan -became typical Gothic structure -it used pointed arches, ribbed groin vaults and flying buttresses. -upper level was now a triform rather than a gallery -the large clerestory windows are formed with lancets that have small circular rose windows done by plate tracery-holes cut in wall replaced with stained glass 16. 12 THE GOOD SAMARITAN WINDOW 1200-1210 (CHARTERS CATHEDRAL) -On sin and salvation and is Gothic narrative art -Jesus told his followers to teach a moral truth it is a parody for Jesus’ redemption for humanity’s sins -Adam and Eve’s fall introduce sin into the world and Christ rescues humanity from sin -figures characterize gothic figures because of their dancelike postures 16. 13 ROSE WINDOW AND LANCETS (CHARTERS CATHEDRAL FRANCE) 1230-1235 -quatrefoils are four lobed designs within the rose itself – The North Rose and its five lancet windows were a gift from Queen Blanche of Castille in 1230. -The rose window depicts the Glorification of the Virgin: Virgin and Child surrounded by doves and angels, then Old Testament kings and Old Testament prophets. Lancets, from left to right: Melchizadek and King Saul; King David and King Jeroboam; St Anne and the infant Mary with the arms of the Royal House of France; King Solomon and King Nebuchadezzar; Aaron and Pharaoh. 16. 14-17 THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE-DAME IN REIMS 1211-1428 (FRANCE) -finished under Philip the Fair -five master masons directed the work over a century. -Mary is featured in the central portal, because of the growing popularity of her cult. -Christ crowns her as queen of heaven in the central gable. -“the gallery of kinds is the only horizontal element of the facade.
WEST FACADE -It depicts Visitation and Mary on the left and Elizabeth pregnant with St. John the Baptist on the right. -the figures are in contrapposto pose because their weight is shifted to one foot as they turn towards each other. -Villard highlighted an innovation that was the development of bar tracery, where thin stone bars called mullions are inserted into the wall to form a lacy framework for the stained glass. 16. 31-32 PULPIT 1260 (ITALY) -NCOLA PISANO – Corinthian columns -elevated and are carved in design of animals -gothic trefoil arch and 6 sided pulpit enunciation angle of Gabriel announces that Mary is pregnant with Christ -classical and naturalistic style -New Testament Subjects -Each panel narrates several continuous scenes such as : Annunciation, Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds. 16. 33 NATIVITY 1302-1310 (PISA) -GIOVANNI PISANO – deeply carved setting -Mary gazing at her baby as the midwife below her prepares the bath for the child. -Sheep, shepherds and angels spiral up towards the trees to the right -it is as dynamic as Nicola’s is static. Fourth Century Art in Europe 17. 5 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1280 (FLORENCE) -CIMABUE -tempera and gold on wood panel the Virgin and Child are surrounded by angels and places a row of Hebrew prophets below them. -Mary is depicted in hierarchy and holds Jesus on her lap. – she looks at the viewer while gesturing at her son. -her throne is bronze with enamels and gems inset and provides framework for the figures. He uses thin gold lines to highlight the drapery of the figures to give them a sense of divinity. -he gives naturalistic warmth and dimension to his human figures. 17. 6 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1305-1310 (FLORENCE) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE – tempera and gold on wood panel -painted for the church of Ognissanti figures are in a symmetrical composition and use the hierarchy scale like Cimabue’s Virgin and Child Enthroned. -Mary takes up a large amount of space and overwhelms her Gothic throne. -the halos also overlap the faces of the figures in the background -she holds her child’s leg instead of pointing to him. -he has created a better sense of dimension compared to Cimabue’s -the angels are foreshortened and project towards us. 17. 7 SCROVEGNI (ARENA) CHAPEL 1305-1306 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -he covered the entrance wall with The Last Judgment and the sanctuary wall with 3 scenes from the life of Christ. The Annunciation spreads over two painted architectural frameworks on either side of the opening to the sanctuary. -below and to the left of this is the scene of Judas getting payment for betraying Jesus and to the right the scene of Visitation where Mary pregnant with God is with Elisabeth who is pregnant with John the Baptist. -Colors complement each other, which is supposed to make the viewers relate them to each other -there is a grisaille which is a painting done in all grays -paint replicated marble and carved medallions on vertical bands -portrait disks float like glowing moons in the blue sky. 17. MARRIAGE AT CANA, RAISING OF LAZARUS, LAMENTATION AND RESURRECTION/NOLI ME TANGERE 1305-06 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -scene from Christ’s life -top left Jesus performs his first miracle, at the wedding feast at Cana turning water to wine and the wine-steward sips it. -to the right is the Raising of Lazarus where figures twist in space using gestures they react to the drama by pleading for the help of Jesus. Jesus’ eyes are locked on Lazarus. -on the lower left register is Jesus’s followers grieving over his dead body in a circle of grief. Mary holds her dead son and John flings his arms back in despair and hunches over the corps. 7. 9 KISS OF JUDAS SCROVEGNI (ARENA) ITALY 1305-06 -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco – the mark of betrayal that shows the first step to Crucifixion for Jesus. -they are slightly off-center in the foreground. -Judas wears the same outfit as in the scene of payment for his betrayal and looks as though he completely swallows Christ’s body. -faces glare from all directions -Jesus is calm unlike the figures in the rest of the scene. -Peter is seen lunging forward to cut off the ear of a member of the arresting retinue. -The scenes of cloth compress the chaos into the picture as if to protect the viewer.