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Changes in Climate and Imminent Effects

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                There is evidence of global warming and climatic change seen in the history of time which has impaled many kinds of research and reports on climate change. Thus, there is a global scientific organization that is tasked with the assessment of emerging information on climate change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015). This organization is known as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC). The group is the most dependable source of impartial facts on the subject of climate variation. Additionally, the IPCC is able to detail long-term and short-term effects of climate change inclusive of the specific regions to be affected. Thus, an insight into some environmental changes discussed by IPCC is sought and discussed below.

Temperature Changes

 The temperature ranges are expected to change further in the future as projected the climate models. This is attributed to the effects of global warming that are progressively being witnessed. The key global changes that are related to temperature are as follows. First, by 2100 surges in average universal temperatures are probable to be ranging between 0.5°F to 8.6°F with an expected rise of a minimum of 2.7°F for all situations (Hawkins & Sutton, 2016). This excludes the one demonstrating the greenhouse gas emissions which is the most belligerent. Similarly, ground-level atmospheric temperatures are anticipated to remain to warm more promptly above land than water bodies. This thus shows that most areas are expected to see greater temperature rises than the total average. 

A rise in Sea Level

 Increase in temperatures leads to sea level rise by dissolving mountain glaciers and hoarfrost, intensifying ocean water and instigating parts of the Antarctic ice pieces and Greenland to dissolve or stream into the sea. Research anticipates worldwide sea level to increase by an additional 1 to 4 feet with an improbability range of 0.66 to 6.6 feet by the year 2100 (Mengel et al., 2016). The influence of thermal increase, frost caps, and trifling glaciers to the ocean level rise are comparatively well calculated. Thus, by the end of this century, 1.2 to 8 inches of sea level rise will be accounted for by vicissitudes in ice sheets that are currently being experienced.

Acidification of the Oceans

 The continuous increase of emission of Carbon (IV) oxide will subsequently result to increase in ocean acidification. The global surface of the pH of the ocean is also projected to decrease at a rate of 0.14 and 0.35 over the 21st century (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015). Ocean acidification therefore harmfully distresses many aquatic species, including corals, shellfish, planktons, and mollusks. As a result of the acidification, the disposal of calcium carbonate will drop which is a crucial component for the exoskeleton of marine organisms (Seijo & Villanueva , 2018). Further, the rates of coral calcification are proposed to reduce by over 30% in the event of a doubled concentration of atmospheric CO2. Thus, by 2050 both global warming and ocean acidification might decline the growth of by approximately 50%.

Policy Recommendations That Address Mitigation and Adaptation 

 The New Climate Commission has made various recommendations that address the issue of mitigation and adaptation as they relate to climate change. First, the Commission proposes that all cities globally should hasten low-carbon manufacturing strategies and implement these strategies by 2020 (Economy, 2014). These policies should encompass aspects such as using renewable energy, effective waste management and use of low-emission and non-motorized means of transport. Additionally, the commission suggests that countries need to guarantee new infrastructure is nonhazardous to the environment (Economy, 2014). The national infrastructure plans and policies should adhere to principles of climate threat and climate aims during the allocation of public and private finance set up for innovation. Thus, full implementation of the recommendations made by the commission could see reductions in emissions by 2030 and therefore keep global warming under 2°C.

References

Economy, N. C. (2014). Better growth, better climate. The New Climate Economy Report. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute (WRI), New Climate Economy.

Hawkins, E., & Sutton, R. (2016). Connecting climate model projections of global temperature change with the real world. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society97(6), 963-980.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2015). Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.

Mengel, M., Levermann, A., Frieler, K., Robinson, A., Marzeion, B., & Winkelmann, R. (2016). Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201500515.

Seijo, J. C., & Villanueva, R. (2018). Bioeconomics of ocean acidification. In Advances in Fisheries Bioeconomics (pp. 74-92). Routledge.

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